Effect of cogongrass biochar enriched with nitrogen fertilizer dissolved in seaweed liquid extract on soil water content of Ultisol





biochar, cogongrass, functional group, seaweed extract, soil water retention


Ultisol dry land is characterized by significantly low organic carbon content, an important factor influencing soil water content and physico-chemical dynamics. The addition of N fertilizer dissolved in seaweed liquid extract as an enrichment solution can change the character of biochar. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the characteristics of cogongrass biochar enriched with dissolved N fertilizer in seaweed extract of different species and assess its impact on soil water content in Ultisol. Urea was used as a nitrogen source, and biochar enriched with N fertilizer dissolved in seaweed liquid extract from Kappapychus alvarezii, Sargassum sp., and Ulva lactuca was tested. Biochar dose used was 20% of soil weight with a 10% extract concentration for each type. Furthermore, five-level treatments were tested in a pot experiment, namely (i) without biochar, (ii) biochar unenriched, (iii) enriched with N fertilizer dissolved in K. alvarezii extract, (iv) enriched with N fertilizer dissolved in Sargassum sp. extract, and (v) biochar enriched with N fertilizer dissolved in U. lactuca extract. Each treatment was repeated three times, following a randomized block design. The results showed that cogongrass biochar enriched with N fertilizer dissolved in seaweed extract had a more amorphous surface morphology structure. The proportion of elements and functional groups in cogongrass biochar changed. Enriched biochar increased Ultisol moisture levels, but water holding capacity and retention were lower than the unenriched sample.


Amalina, F., Razak, A.S.A., Krishnan, S., Sulaiman, H., Zularisam, A.W. and Nasrullah, M. 2022a. Biochar production techniques utilizing biomass waste-derived materials and environmental applications - A review. Journal of Hazardous Materials Advances 7:100134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hazadv.2022.100134

Amalina, F., Razak, A.S.A., Krishnan, S., Zularisam, A.W. and Nasrullah, M. 2022b. A comprehensive assessment of the method for producing biochar, its characterization, stability, and potential applications in regenerative economic sustainability - A review. Cleaner Materials 3:100045. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clema.2022.100045

Amalina, F., Syukor Abd Razak, A., Krishnan, S., Sulaiman, H., Zularisam, A.W. and Nasrullah, M. 2022c. Advanced techniques in the production of biochar from lignocellulosic biomass and environmental applications. Cleaner Materials 6:100137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clema.2022.100137

Bai, Y. and Cotrufo, M.F. 2022. Grassland soil carbon sequestration: current understanding, challenges, and solutions. Science 377(6606):603-608. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abo2380

Bashir, S., Zhu, J., Fu, Q. and Hu, H. 2018. Comparing the adsorption mechanism of Cd by rice straw pristine and KOH-modified biochar. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 25:11875-11883. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-1292-z

Batista, E.M.C.C., Shultz, J., Matos, T.T.S., Fornari, M.R., Ferreira, T.M., Szpoganicz, B., De Freitas, R.A. and Mangrich, A.S. 2018. Effect of surface and porosity of biochar on water holding capacity aiming indirectly at preservation of the Amazon biome. Scientific Reports 8:10667. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-28794-z

Bian, H., Li, C., Zhu, J., Xu, L., Li, M., Zheng, S. and He, N. 2022. Soil moisture affects the rapid response of microbes to labile organic C addition. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 10:857185. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2022.857185

Buchari, H., Untari, T., Niswati, A. and Sunyoto, S. 2021. Change of soil biomass carbon microorganism in Ultisols soil due to application of humic acid and phosphate fertilization. Journal of Tropical Soils 26(3):149-156. https://doi.org/10.5400/jts.2021.v26i3.149-156

Chen, D., Cen, K., Zhuang, X., Gan, Z., Zhou, J., Zhang, Y. and Zhang, H. 2022. Insight into biomass pyrolysis mechanism based on cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin: evolution of volatiles and kinetics, elucidation of reaction pathways, and characterization of gas, biochar and bio-oil. Combustion and Flame 242:112142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2022.112142

Chudasama, N.A., Polisetti, V., Maity, T.K., Reddy, A.V.R. and Prasad, K. 2022. Preparation of seaweed polysaccharide based hydrophobic composite membranes for the separation of oil/water emulsion and protein. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 199:36-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.12.087

Clemente, J. S., Beauchemin, S., Thibault, Y., Mackinnon, T. and Smith, D. 2018. Differentiating inorganics in biochars produced at commercial scale using principal component analysis. ACS Omega 3(6):6931-6944. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.8b00523

Cole, E.J., Zandvakili, O.R., Xing, B., Hashemi, M., Herbert, S. and Mashayekhi, H.H. 2019. Dataset on the effect of hardwood biochar on soil gravimetric moisture content and nitrate dynamics at different soil depths with FTIR analysis of fresh and aged biochar. Data in Brief 25:104073. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2019.104073

Ding, G., Liu, X., Herbert, S., Novak, J., Amarasiriwardena, D. and Xing, B. 2006. Effect of cover crop management on soil organic matter. Geoderma 130(3-4):229-239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2005.01.019

Dorset, D.L. 1998. X-ray diffraction: A practical approach. Microscopy and Microanalysis 4(5):513-515. https://doi.org/10.1017/S143192769800049X

Drahorad, S.L., Jehn, F.U., Ellerbrock, R.H., Siemens, J. and Felix-Henningsen, P. 2020. Soil organic matter content and its aliphatic character define the hydrophobicity of biocrusts in different successional stages. Ecohydrology 13(6):e2232. https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.2232

Fan, M., Li, C., Shao, Y., Zhang, S., Gholizadeh, M. and Hu, X. 2022. Pyrolysis of cellulose: Correlation of hydrophilicity with evolution of functionality of biochar. Science of The Total Environment 825:153959. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.153959

FAO. 2020. Soil testing methods - Global Soil Doctors Programme - A farmer to farmer training programme. Soil testing methods manual.

Gan, F., Cheng, B., Jin, Z., Dai, Z., Wang, B., Yang, L. and Jiang, X. 2021. Hierarchical porous biochar from plant-based biomass through selectively removing lignin carbon from biochar for enhanced removal of toluene. Chemosphere 279:130514. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130514

Giagnoni, L., Taiti, C., León, P., Costa, C., Menesatti, P., Espejo, R., Gómez-Paccard, C., Hontoria, C., Vázquez, E., Benito, M., Mancuso, S. and Renella, G. 2020. Volatile organic compound emission and biochemical properties of degraded Ultisols ameliorated by no tillage and liming. Pedosphere 30(5):597-606. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(20)60024-8

Hernández-Herrera, R.M., Santacruz-Ruvalcaba, F., Ruiz-López, M.A., Norrie, J. and Hernández-Carmona, G. 2014. Effect of liquid seaweed extracts on growth of tomato seedlings (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Journal of Applied Phycology 26(1):619-628. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-013-0078-4

Hidayat, S., Bakar, M.S.A., Ahmed, A., Iryani, D.A., Hussain, M., Jamil, F. and Park, Y.K. 2021. Comprehensive kinetic study of Imperata Cylindrica pyrolysis via Asym2sig deconvolution and combined kinetics. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 156:103133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2021.105133

Hoffland, E., Kuyper, T.W., Comans, R.N.J. and Creamer, R.E. 2020. Eco-functionality of organic matter in soils. Plant and Soil 455(1-2):1-22. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-020-04651-9

Huang, B., Huang, D., Zheng, Q., Yan, C., Feng, J., Gao, H., Fu, H. and Liao, Y. 2023. Enhanced adsorption capacity of tetracycline on porous graphitic biochar with an ultra-large surface area. RSC Advances 13(15):10397-10407. https://doi.org/10.1039/D3RA00745F

Hussain, H.I., Kasinadhuni, N. and Arioli, T. 2021. The effect of seaweed extract on tomato plant growth, productivity and soil. Journal of Applied Phycology 33(2):1305-1315. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-021-02387-2

Hussain, R., Ravi, K. and Garg, A. 2020. Influence of biochar on the soil water retention characteristics (SWRC): potential application in geotechnical engineering structures. Soil and Tillage Research 204:104713. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2020.104713

Ilkiv, B., Petrovska, S., Sergiienko, R., Foya, O., Ilkiv, O., Shibata, E., Nakamura, T. and Zaulychnyy, Y. 2015. Electronic structure of hollow graphitic carbon nanoparticles fabricated from acetylene carbon black. Fullerenes Nanotubes and Carbon Nanostructures 23(5):449-454. https://doi.org/10.1080/1536383X.2014.885957

Janu, R., Mrlik, V., Ribitsch, D., Hofman, J., Sedlacek, P., Bielska, L. and Soja, G. 2021. Biochar surface functional groups as affected by biomass feedstock, biochar composition and pyrolysis temperature. Carbon Resources Conversion 4:36-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crcon.2021.01.003

Jensen, J.L., Schjonning, P., Watts, C.W., Christensen, B. T. and Munkholm, L.J. 2020. Short-term changes in soil pore size distribution: Impact of land use. Soil and Tillage Research 199:104597. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2020.104597

Karim, A.A., Kumar, M., Singh, E., Kumar, A., Kumar, S., Ray, A. and Dhal, N.K. 2022. Enrichment of primary macronutrients in biochar for sustainable agriculture: a review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 52(9):1449-1490. https://doi.org/10.1080/10643389.2020.1859271

Kasim, M.R. 2016. Macroalgae: Study of Biology, Ecology, Utilization and Cultivation. Jakarta, Swadaya Publishers (in Indonesian).

Kilowasid, L.M.H., Manik, D.S., Nevianti, Komang, G.A., Mutmainna, P., Afa, L.O., Rakian, T.C., Hisein, W. S.A., Ramadhan, L.O.A.N. and Alam, S. 2023. The quality of acid soils treated with seaweed (Kappapychus alvarezii) sap enriched biochar from Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 10(2):4255-4265. https://doi.org/10.15243/jdmlm.2023.102.4255

Kinney, T.J., Masiello, C.A., Dugan, B., Hockaday, W.C., Dean, M.R., Zygourakis, K. and Barnes, R.T. 2012. Hydrologic properties of biochars produced at different temperatures. Biomass and Bioenergy 41:34-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2012.01.033

Kow, K.W., Yusoff, R., Aziz, A.R.A. and Abdullah, E.C. 2014. Characterisation of bio-silica synthesised from cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica). Powder Technology 254:206-213. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2014.01.018

Kulasinski, K., Guyer, R., Keten, S., Derome, D. and Carmeliet, J. 2015. Impact of moisture adsorption on structure and physical properties of amorphous biopolymers. Macromolecules 48(8):2793-2800. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.macromol.5b00248

Lee, K.Y. and Mooney, D.J. 2012. Alginate: properties and biomedical applications. Progress in Polymer Science 37(1):106-126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2011.06.003

Li, H. and Tan, Z. 2021. Preparation of high water-retaining biochar and its mechanism of alleviating drought stress in the soil and plant system. Biochar 3(4):579-590. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42773-021-00107-0

Liu, X., Liao, J., Song, H., Yang, Y., Guan, C. and Zhang, Z. 2019. A biochar-based route for environmentally friendly controlled release of nitrogen: urea-loaded biochar and bentonite composite. Scientific Reports 9(1):9548. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-46065-3

Lü, S., Feng, C., Gao, C., Wang, X., Xu, X., Bai, X., Gao, N. and Liu, M. 2016. Multifunctional environmental smart fertilizer based on l -aspartic acid for sustained nutrient release. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 64(24):4965-4974. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.6b01133

Ma, Z., Yang, Y., Wu, Y., Xu, J., Peng, H., Liu, X., Zhang, W. and Wang, S. 2019. In-depth comparison of the physicochemical characteristics of biochar derived from biomass pseudo components: Hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 140:195-204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2019.03.015

Madung, Z., Soloi, S., Majid, M.H.A. and Sarjadi, M.S. 2022. Production and characterization of Imperata cylindrica paper using potassium hydroxide as a pulping agent. Biodiversitas 23(3):1490-1494. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d230337

Martín-del-Campo, A., Fermín-Jiménez, J.A., Fernández-Escamilla, V.V., Escalante-García, Z.Y., Macías-Rodríguez, M.E. and Estrada-Girón, Y. 2021. Improved extraction of carrageenan from red seaweed (Chondracantus canaliculatus) using ultrasound-assisted methods and evaluation of the yield, physicochemical properties and functional groups. Food Science and Biotechnology 30(7):901-910. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-021-00935-7

Michael, P.S. 2020. Cogon grass biochar amendment and Panicum coloratum planting improve selected properties of sandy soil under humid lowland tropical climatic conditions. Biochar 2(4):489-502. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42773-020-00057-z

Mujtaba, G., Hayat, R., Hussain, Q. and Ahmed, M. 2021. Physio-chemical characterization of biochar, compost and co-composted biochar derived from green waste. Sustainability 13(9):4638. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13094628

Nain, P., Purakayastha, T.J., Sarkar, B., Bhowmik, A., Biswas, S., Kumar, S., Shukla, L., Biswas, D.R., Bandyopadhyay, K.K., Agarwal, B.K. and Saha, N. Das. 2022. Nitrogen-enriched biochar co-compost for the amelioration of degraded tropical soil. Environmental Technology. https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2022.2103742

Nandiyanto, A.B.D., Oktiani, R. and Ragadhita, R. 2019. How to read and interpret FTIR spectroscope of organic material. Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology 4(1):97-118. https://doi.org/10.17509/ijost.v4i1.15806

Nazri, N.A.M., Halim, S.N.Q.S.A. and Karim, S. 2023. Biochar-based graphitic carbon nitride derived from biomass waste for degradation of pyrene. Advanced Structured Materials 165. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-21959-7_5

Niu, Y., Lv, Y., Zhang, X., Wang, D., Li, P. and Hui, S. 2019. Effects of water leaching (simulated rainfall) and additives (KOH, KCl, and SiO2) on the ash fusion characteristics of corn straw. Applied Thermal Engineering 154:485-492. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2019.03.124

Panagea, I.S., Berti, A., Cermak, P., Diels, J., Elsen, A., Kusa, H., Piccoli, I., Poesen, J., Stoate, C., Tits, M., Toth, Z. and Wyseure, G. 2021. Soil water retention as affected by management induced changes of soil organic carbon: Analysis of long-term experiments in Europe. Land 10(12):1362. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10121362

Phuong, D.T.M. and Loc, N.X. 2022. Rice straw biochar and magnetic rice straw biochar for safranin O adsorption from aqueous solution. Water 14(2):186. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020186

Pramanick, B., Brahmachari, K., Kar, S. and Mahapatra, B.S. 2020. Can foliar application of seaweed sap improve the quality of rice grown under rice-potato-green gram crop sequence with better efficiency of the system? Journal of Applied Phycology 32(5):3377-3386. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-020-02150-z

Purwanto, S., Gani, R.A. and Suryani, E. 2021. Characteristics of Ultisols derived from basaltic andesite materials and their association with old volcanic landforms in Indonesia. Sains Tanah 17(2):135-143. https://doi.org/10.20961/stjssa.v17i2.38301

Qi, J., Markewitz, D., McGuire, M.A., Samuelson, L. and Ward, E. 2020. Throughfall reduction × fertilization: deep soil water usage in a clay rich Ultisol under Loblolly pine in the Southeast USA. Frontiers in Forests and Global Change 2. https://doi.org/10.3389/ffgc.2019.00093

Rajivgandhi, G.N., Kanisha, C.C., Ramachandran, G., Manoharan, N., Mothana, R.A., Siddiqui, N.A., Al-Rehaily, A.J., Ullah, R. and Almarfadi, O.M. 2021. Phytochemical screening and anti-oxidant activity of Sargassum wightii enhances the anti-bacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 28(3):1763-1769. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.12.018

Sackey, E.A., Song, Y., Yu, Y. and Zhuang, H. 2021. Biochars derived from bamboo and rice straw for sorption of basic red dyes. PLoS ONE 16:0254637. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0254637

Sakhiya, A.K., Anand, A. and Kaushal, P. 2020. Production, activation, and applications of biochar in recent times. Biochar 2(3):253-285. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42773-020-00047-1

Shitole, S.S., Balange, A.K. and Gangan, S.S. 2014. Use of seaweed (Sargassum tenerrimum) extract as gel enhancer for lesser sardine (Sardinella brachiosoma) surimi. International Aquatic Research 6(1):55. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40071-014-0055-9

Singh, R., Dutta, R.K., Naik, D.V., Ray, A. and Kanaujia, P.K. 2021. High surface area eucalyptus wood biochar for the removal of phenol from petroleum refinery wastewater. Environmental Challenges 5:100353. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envc.2021.100353

Sornhiran, N., Aramrak, S., Prakongkep, N. and Wisawapipat, W. 2022. Silicate minerals control the potential uses of phosphorus-laden mineral-engineered biochar as phosphorus fertilizers. Biochar 4(1). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42773-021-00129-8

Sukarman, Saidy, A.R., Rusmayadi, G., Adriani, D.E., Primananda, S., Suwardi, Wirianata, H. and Fitriana, C.D.A. 2022. Effect of water deficit of Ultisols, Entisols, Spodosols, and Histosols on oil palm productivity in Central Kalimantan. Sains Tanah 19(2):180-191. https://doi.org/10.20961/stjssa.v19i2.65455

Susanto, A.H. and Dwiati, M. 2022. Short sommunication: Assessment of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) P.Beauv.) genetic variation in Java, Indonesia using atpB-rbcL and trnL-F intergenic spacer. Biodiversitas 23(5):2760-2767. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d230558

Syahrinudin, Denich, M., Becker, M., Hartati, W. and Vlek, P.L.G. 2020. Biomass and carbon distribution on Imperata cylindrica grasslands. Biodiversitas 21(1):74-79. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d210111

Vaghela, P., Trivedi, K., Anand, K.G.V., Brahmbhatt, H., Nayak, J., Khandhediya, K., Prasad, K., Moradiya, K., Kubavat, D., Konwar, L.J., Veeragurunathan, V., Grace, P.G. and Ghosh, A. 2023. Scientific basis for the use of minimally processed homogenates of Kappaphycus alvarezii (red) and Sargassum wightii (brown) seaweeds as crop biostimulants. Algal Research 70:102969. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2023.102969

Wadduwage, J., Liu, H., Egidi, E., Singh, B.K. and Macdonald, C.A. 2023. Effects of biostimulant application on soil biological and physicochemical properties: A field study. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Environment 2(3):285-300.


Wang, B., Gao, B. and Fang, J. 2017. Recent advances in engineered biochar productions and applications. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 47(22). https://doi.org/10.1080/10643389.2017.1418580

Waqas, M., Aburiazaiza, A.S., Miandad, R., Rehan, M., Barakat, M.A. and Nizami, A.S. 2018. Development of biochar as fuel and catalyst in energy recovery technologies. Journal of Cleaner Production 188:477-488. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.04.017

Weber, P.L., Blaesbjerg, N.H., Moldrup, P., Pesch, C., Hermansen, C., Greve, M.H., Arthur, E. and de Jonge, L.W. 2023. Organic carbon controls water retention and plant available water in cultivated soils from South Greenland. Soil Science Society of America Journal 87(2):203-215. https://doi.org/10.1002/saj2.20490

Wystalska, K. and Kwarciak-Kozlowska, A. 2021. The effect of biodegradable waste pyrolysis temperatures on selected biochar properties. Materials 14(7):1644. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14071644

Yaashikaa, P.R., Kumar, P.S., Varjani, S. and Saravanan, A. 2020. A critical review on the biochar production techniques, characterization, stability and applications for circular bioeconomy. Biotechnology Reports 28: e00570. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.btre.2020.e00570

Yaich, H., Garna, H., Besbes, S., Barthélemy, J.P., Paquot, M., Blecker, C. and Attia, H. 2014. Impact of extraction procedures on the chemical, rheological and textural properties of ulvan from Ulva lactuca of Tunisia coast. Food Hydrocolloids 40:53-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2014.02.002

Yang, F., Zhang, G.L., Yang, J.L., Li, D.C., Zhao, Y.G., Liu, F., Yang, R.M. and Yang, F. 2014. Organic matter controls of soil water retention in an alpine grassland and its significance for hydrological processes. Journal of Hydrology 519(PD):3086-3093. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.10.054

Yang, Y., Wu, J., Zhao, S., Mao, Y., Zhang, J., Pan, X., He, F. and van der Ploeg, M. 2021. Impact of long-term sub-soiling tillage on soil porosity and soil physical properties in the soil profile. Land Degradation and Development 32(10):2892-2905. https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.3874

Yudina, A. and Kuzyakov, Y. 2023. Dual nature of soil structure: the unity of aggregates and pores. Geoderma 434:116478. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2023.116478

Zhang, J., Chi, F., Wei, D., Zhou, B., Cai, S., Li, Y., Kuang, E., Sun, L. and Li, L.J. 2019. Impacts of long-term fertilization on the molecular structure of humic acid and organic carbon content in soil aggregates in black soil. Scientific Reports 9(1):11908. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-48406-8

Zhao, J.J., Shen, X.J., Domene, X., Alcañiz, J.M., Liao, X. and Palet, C. 2019. Comparison of biochars derived from different types of feedstock and their potential for heavy metal removal in multiple-metal solutions. Scientific Reports 9(1):9869. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-46234-4








How to Cite

Kilowasid, L. M. H., Alam, S., Rakian, T. C., Ansar, N. A., Nurfadillah, Ramdan, N. H., Jaya, I., Suryana, Agustin, W., Rahni, N. M., Mashuni, & Safuan, L. O. (2024). Effect of cogongrass biochar enriched with nitrogen fertilizer dissolved in seaweed liquid extract on soil water content of Ultisol. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management, 11(3), 5585–5596. https://doi.org/10.15243/jdmlm.2024.113.5585



Research Article