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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in Microsoft Word document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
    The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 10-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  • If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

Author Guidelines

Research articles should describe new and carefully confirmed findings, and experimental procedures should be given in sufficient detail for others to verify the work. The length of a full article should be the minimum required to describe and interpret the work. Submissions of systematic reviews and perspectives covering topics of current interest are welcome.


The submission has not been published, nor has it been before another journal for consideration. The submission file is in Microsoft Word document file format with Times New Roman font. The length of a complete article should be no less than 6 pages (10-point font, single-spaced, including figures, tables, and references). All illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points rather than at the end. A template to guide authors in the preparation of the manuscript can be download here (PDF & DOCX).


The title should be a brief phrase describing the contents of the article. This should include the full author names (with no titles or qualifications), institutional addresses (department, institute, city, post/zip code, country), and email addresses for all authors. Authors and affiliations must be linked using superscript numerals. The corresponding author should also be indicated. The title should be no more than 15 words in length.

Abstract and Keywords

The abstract should be informative and self-explanatory, briefly present the topic, state the scope of the experiments, indicate significant data, and point out major findings and conclusions. The abstract should be 120 to 250 words in length. Complete sentences should be used when writing the abstract. The methods used, and the results obtained presented in the abstract should be written in the past tense. Standard nomenclature should be used, and abbreviations should be avoided. While the abstract is conceptually divided into four sections (introduction/background, materials and methods, results/principal findings, and conclusions/significance), do not apply these distinct headings to the abstract within the article file. No literature should be cited. Following the abstract, five keywords that will provide indexing references should be listed.


The Introduction should provide a clear statement of the problem, the relevant literature on the subject, and the proposed approach or solution. It should be understandable to colleagues from a broad range of scientific disciplines.

Materials and Methods

Experimental procedures should be given in sufficient detail to allow these to be replicated by other researchers. The source of the various reagents and materials used in the study should be given, where possible. Capitalize trade names and include the name and address of the manufacturers. Subheadings should be used. Methods, in general use, need not be described in detail.


The results section should provide details of all of the experiments that are required to support the conclusions of the article. There is no specific word limit for this section, but details of experiments that are peripheral to the main thrust of the article and that detract from the focus of the article should not be included. The results should be written in the past tense when describing the experiment findings. Previously published findings should be written in the present tense. The section may be divided into subsections, each with a concise subheading. Results should be explained, but largely without referring to the literature. Discussion, speculation, and detailed interpretation of data should not be included in the results section but should be included in the discussion section.


This section should present a comprehensive analysis of the results in light of previous research. The present tense may be used when discussing the results. The Results and Discussion sections can include subheadings, and when appropriate, both sections can be combined.


The conclusion section should highlight the significance of the research article, show how it has brought closure to the research problem, and point out remaining gaps in knowledge by suggesting issues for further research.


The authors should first acknowledge the funding source for the research presented in their article, followed by any personal credits. The acknowledgment should be brief.


All publications cited in the text should be presented in a list of references following the text of the article.  In the text, the citations should be referred to by the author's name and year of publication enclosed in parentheses, e.g. (Osman, 2014; Mhlongo and Akintola, 2021; Jiang et al., 2022). If a reference is made in the text to a publication written by more than two authors, the first author's name should be used, followed by “et al.” In the list of references, however, the names of all authors should be mentioned.  References cited together in the text should be arranged chronologically. The list of references should be arranged alphabetically according to the author's names and chronologically per author.


Baker, A.J.M., McGrath, S.P., Reeves, R.D. and Smith, J.A.C. 2000. Metal hyper-accumulator plants: a review of the ecology and physiology of a biological resource for phytoremediation of metal-polluted soils. In: Terry, N. and Banuelos, G. (eds), Phytoremediation of Contaminated Soil and Water. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL., pp 85–107.

Fernando, E.S., Wuimado, M.O., Trinidad, L.C. and Doronila, A.I. 2012. The potential use of indigenous nickel hyperaccumulators for small-scale mining in the Philippines. Proceeding of the International Conference on Environmental, Socio-economic, and Health Impacts of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining. February 7-8, 2012, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia. p 83-90.

Jiang, J.W., Zhang, S.X., Li, S.N., Zeng, W.L., Li, F.X. and Wang, W. 2022. Magnetized manganese-doped watermelon rind biochar as a novel low-cost catalyst for improving oxygen reduction reaction in microbial fuel cells. Science of The Total Environment 802:149989, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149989.

Mhlongo, S.E. and Akintola, G.O. 2021. Artisanal and small-scale mining activities as post-mining land use in abandoned mine sites: a case of Giyani and Musina areas, Limpopo Province of South Africa. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 8:2815-2827, doi:10.15243/jdmlm.2021.083.2815.

Osman, K.T. 2014. Soil Degradation, Conservation and Remediation. Springer Netherlands. 237p eBook ISBN: 978-94-007-7590-9.

Prabha, J., Kumar, M. and Tripathi, R. 2021. Bioremediation for environmental sustainability. In: Saxena, G., Kumar, V. and Shan, M.P. (eds), Toxicity, Mechanisms of Contaminants Degradation, Detoxification and Challenges. Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, Netherland, pp. 637-653.


Tables should be kept to a minimum and be designed to be as simple as possible. The table title should be concise, no more than two sentences. The rest of the table legend and any footnotes should be placed below the table. Footnotes can be used to explain abbreviations. Tables must be cell-based, such as those produced in a spreadsheet program or Microsoft Word. Do not provide tables as graphic objects. Tables must be no larger than one printed page. Do not include color, shading, lines, rules, text boxes, tabs, returns, or pictures within the table. The methods used in the experiments should preferably be described in the legend instead of in the text. The same data should not be presented in table and graph form or repeated in the text. All tables must be numbered consecutively (in Arabic numbers). Place tables as close as possible to where they are mentioned in the main text. All tables should be referred to in the text as Table 1, Table 2, etc.


Figures should be as small and simple as is compatible with clarity. The goal is for figures to be comprehensible to readers in other or related disciplines and to assist their understanding of the article. Figure legends should be typed in numerical order. Graphics should be prepared using applications capable of generating high-resolution GIF, TIFF, JPEG, or PowerPoint before being pasted into the Microsoft Word article file. Figures should be prepared in Microsoft Word. Use Arabic numerals to designate figures and upper case letters for their parts (e.g., Figure 1). Begin each legend with a title and include sufficient description so that the figure is understandable without reading the text of the article. Information given in legends should not be repeated in the text.

Units and Abbreviations

The writing of units and abbreviations in the article should refer to unit standards; for example, kilogram = kg, gram = g, hectare = ha, meter = m, centimeter = cm; kilometer = km, ton = t or Mg (megagram), milligram = mg, milliliter = mL; liter = L, degrees Celsius = o C, without period ending. Writing one unit per unit is as follows: for example, kilograms per hectare - written as kg/ha or kg ha-1, ton per hectare – written as t/ha or t ha-1, kilometer per hour - written as km/hour or km hour-1.

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