Changes in natural forest land cover of the Eucalyptus urophylla type in the Mutis Timau area in 2002-2022, East Nusa Tenggara Province


  • Lusia Sulo Marimpan Department of Forestry, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Nusa Cendana. Jl. Adisucipto, Penfui, Kupang 85001, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia
  • Ris Hadi Purwanto Department of Forest Management, Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Jl. Agro No. 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman 55281, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Wahyu Wardhana Department of Forest Management, Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Jl. Agro No. 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman 55281, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Fahmi Idris Department of Research and Development, Trofsit Institute, Jl. Kaliurang Km 16 Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
  • Sumardi Sumardi Department of Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Jl. Agro No. 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman 55281, Yogyakarta, Indonesia



Eucalyptus urophylla , land cover change, natural forest


Anthropogenic activities carried out by communities around forests in production forests, protected forests, and conservation forests have an impact on changes in the land cover of these areas. This impact is difficult to avoid because, on the other hand, production forests and protected forests are in direct contact with the lives of local communities. Changes in land cover have a significant impact on the contribution of Folu Net Sink, which is set by the government at 31.89% in 2030 with its efforts. This research aims to provide an overview of land cover changes that occurred in natural forests of the Eucalyptus urophylla type from 2002 to 2022. The method used in this research is a supervised/guided digital classification technique. Ground checks were also carried out in this research to match the accuracy of the image data with the actual conditions in the field. The research results show that changes in land cover in 2012 and 2017 were very extreme. Forest fires were the cause of changes in land cover during this period. Meanwhile, in 2002, 2007, and 2022, the land cover was still good, in a positive direction. The causes of changes in land cover are encroachment activities, encroachment, illegal logging, firewood theft, rice fields, forest fires, plantations, and farming. Forest preservation provides very high benefits for life on earth. Therefore, it is important to pay attention to the welfare of local communities so that they do not damage the forest, as well as increase the capacity to educate the community regarding zoning or blocks in conservation and protected forests. Apart from that, good forest management is needed to ensure forest sustainability in the future.


Abdu, N., Elena T., Clinton, L., Peter, W.V. and Darla, H.M.D. 2022. Illegal firewood collection in Tasmania: Approaching the problem with the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework. Land Use Policy 118 (September 2021):106130.

Acheampong, O.J., Attua, E.M., Mensah, M., Fosu-Mensah, B.Y., Apambilla, R.A. and Doe, E.K. 2022. Livelihood, carbon and spatiotemporal land-use land-cover change in the Yenku Forest Reserve of Ghana, 2000-2020. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 112 (March):102938.

Amponsah, A., Nasare, L.I., Tom-Dery, D. and Baatuuwie, B.N. 2022. Land cover changes of Atewa range forest reserve, a biodiversity hotspot in Ghana. Trees, Forests and People 9 (March):100301.

Andrew, S.M., Qambemeda, M., Nyanghura, Q.M. and Mombo, F.M. 2023. Land cover change and utilization of village land forest reserves in Ludewa, Tanzania. Environmental Challenges 10 (September 2022):100668.

Appiah, J.O., Agyemang-Duah, W., Sobeng, A.K. and Kpienbaareh, D. 2022. Analysing patterns of forest cover change and related land uses in the Tano-Offin forest reserve in Ghana: Implications for forest policy and land management. Trees, Forests and People 5 (3 June 2021): 100105.

Balima, L.H., Kouamé, F.N.G., Bayen, P., Ganamé, M., Nacoulma, B.M.I., Thiombiano, A. and Soro, D. 2021. Influence of climate and forest attributes on aboveground carbon Storage in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Environmental Challenges 4 (April):100123.

Bentsi-Enchill, F., Damptey, F.G., Nii, A., Pappoe, M., Ekumah, B. and Akotoye, H.K. 2022. Impact of anthropogenic disturbance on tree species diversity, vegetation structure and carbon storage potential in an upland evergreen forest of Ghana, West Africa. Trees, Forests and People 8(June 2022):100238.

Breiman, L. 2001. Random Forest. Machine Learning 12343 LNCS: 503-515.

Cao, J., Pan, G., Zheng, B., Yang Liu, Y. and Zhang, G. 2023. Significant land cover change in China during 2001-2019: Implications for direct and indirect effects on surface ozone concentration. Environmental Pollution 335 (July):122290.

Chowdhury, M.S. and Hafsa, B. 2022. Approach multi-decadal land cover change analysis over Sundarbans Mangrove Forest of Bangladesh: A GIS and remote sensing based. Global Ecology and Conservation 37 (May): e02151.

Dako, F.X., Purwanto, R.H., Rahayu, L. and Farida, W. 2019. The anthropogenic damages in the Mutis Timau forest protection area and their countermeasures in Western Part Timor Island. Journal of Natural Resources and Environmental Management 9(2) 437-455, (in Indonesian).

Danoedoro, P. 1996. Digital Image Processing Theory and Applications in the Field of Remote Sensing. Faculty of Geography, Gadjah Mada University (in Indonesian).

Engelstad, P. and Carver, D. 2021. Module 5: Raster Pre-Processing. Ecology and Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory at CSU.

Ewunetu, A., Simane, B., Teferi, E. and Zaitchik, B.F. 2021. Mapping and quantifying comprehensive land degradation status using spatial multicriteria evaluation technique in the headwaters area of Upper Blue Nile River. Sustainability (Switzerland) 13(4):1-28.

Forestriko, H.F. and Hartono, H. 2016. Utilization of Landsat 8 imagery to estimate mangrove forest carbon stock in the Segara Anakan Cilacap area, Central Java. Jurnal Bumi Indonesia 5(1):1-10 (in Indonesian).

HCS Approach Steering Groups Eds. 2015. The HCS Approach Toolkit Version 1.0. HCS Approach Steering Groups, no. March.

Juniyanti, L., Prasetyo, L.B., Aprianto, D.P., Purnomo, H. and Kartodihardjo, H. 2020. Changes in land use and cover, and their causative factors on Bengkalis Island, Riau Province (Period 1990-2019). Journal of Natural Resources and Environmental Management 10(3):419-435 (in Indonesian).

Kumar G., Kumar, A., Saikia, P., Roy, P.S. and Khan, M.L. 2022. Ecological impacts of forest fire on composition and structure of tropical deciduous forests of Central India. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C 128(December 2022):103240.

Kumar, K.C.R., Mahato, D.B., Yadav, N.K. and Poudel, P. 2020. Mapping deforestation and forest degradation using CLASlite approach (a case study from Maya Devi Collaborative Forest of Kapilvastu District, Nepal). International Journal of Environmental Sciences & Natural Resources 23(5).

Kumi, S., Adu-Poku, D. and Attiogbe, F. 2023. Dynamics of land cover changes and condition of soil and surface water quality in a mining-altered landscape, Ghana. Heliyon 9(7): e17859.

Laudon, H. and Hasselquist, E.M. 2023. Applying continuous-cover forestry on drained boreal peatlands; Water regulation, biodiversity, climate benefits and remaining uncertainties. Trees, Forests and People 11:100363.

Liu, S., Yuan, Z., Ali, A., Sanaei, A., Mao, Z., Ding, F. and Di Zheng, D. 2021. Anthropogenic disturbances shape soil capillary and saturated water retention indirectly via plant functional traits and soil organic carbon in temperate forests. Forests 12(11).

Mannan, A., Liu, J., Zhongke, F., Khan, T.U., Saeed, S., Mukete, B. and Yong, S.C. 2019. Application of land-use/land cover changes in monitoring and projecting forest biomass carbon loss in Pakistan. Global Ecology and Conservation 17(35):e00535.

Marimpan, L.S., Purwanto, R.H., Wardhana, W. and Sumardi. 2022. Carbon storage potential of Eucalyptus urophylla at several density levels and forest management types in dry land ecosystems. Biodiversitas 23(6):2830-2837.

Njurumana, G.N., Riwu Kaho, N.P.L.B., Iswandono, E., Huky, S.S.W., Budy Z. Mooy, Fatmawati, F., Darius A. Kian, D.A. and Nomeni, Y.F. 2021. The livelihood challenge of forest honey bee farmers amidst COVID-19 pandemic in Mutis, Indonesia. Forest and Society 5(2):526-542.

Nomura, K. and Mitchard, E.T.A. 2018. More than meets the eye: Using Sentinel-2 to map small plantations in complex forest landscapes. Remote Sensing 10(11).

Nyamukuru, A., Whitney, C., Tabuti, J.R.S., Esaete, J. and Low. M. 2023. Allometric models for aboveground biomass estimation of small trees and shrubs in African savanna ecosystems. Trees, Forests and People 11 (January):100377.

Olorunfemi, I.E., Komolafe, A.A., Fasinmirin, J.T. and Olufayo, A.A. 2019. Biomass carbon stocks of different land use management in the forest vegetative zone of Nigeria. Acta Oecologica 95(July 2018):45-56.

Pach, M., Bielak, K., Boncina, A., Coll, L., Hohn, M., Kasanin-Grubin, M., Lesinski, J., Pretzsch, H., Skrzyszewski, J., Spathelf, P., Tonon, G., Weatherall, A. and Zlatanov, T. 2022. Climate-smart silviculture in mountain regions. Climate-Smart Forestry in Mountain Regions, Part of the Managing Forest Ecosystems book series (MAFE, volume 40), pp 263-315.

Rodman, K.C., Crouse, J.E., Donager, J.J., Huffman, D.W. and Meador, A.J.S. 2022. Patterns and drivers of recent land cover change on two trailing-edge forest landscapes. Forest Ecology and Management 521(June).

Sugiyono. 2020. Quantitative Qualitative Research Methods and R&D. 2nd ed. Bandung: Alfabeta. ISBN: 978-602-289-533-6 (in Indonesian).

Surata, I.K. 2015. Distribution and conservation of ampupu (Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake) in East Nusa Tenggara. Proceedings of the National Seminar on Savana Nusa Tenggara Biodiversity, 24 November 2015, 1-16 (in Indonesian).

Taye, G., Teklesilassie,T., Teka, D. and Kassa, H. 2023. Assessment of soil erosion hazard and its relation to land use land cover changes: case study from Alage Watershed, Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Heliyon 9(8):e18648.

Tsai, Y.H., Stow, D., Chen, H.L., Lewison, R., An, L. and Shi, L. 2018. Mapping vegetation and land use types in Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve using Google Earth Engine. Remote Sensing 10(6).

Vasile, M. and Iordachescu, G. 2022. Forest crisis narratives: Illegal logging, datafication and the conservation frontier in the Romanian Carpathian mountains. Political Geography 96 (September 2020).

Widyantara, A.P. and Solihuddin, T. 2020. Mapping changes in mangrove land area on the coast of Probolinggo using satellite imagery. Journal of Remote Sensing and Digital Image 17(2).

Zhou, N., Hu, X., Byskov, I., Næss, J.S., Wu, Q., Zhao, W. and Cherubini, F. 2021. Overview of recent land cover changes, forest harvest areas, and soil erosion trends in Nordic countries. Geography and Sustainability 2(3):163-174.








How to Cite

Marimpan, L. S., Purwanto, R. H., Wardhana, W., Idris, F., & Sumardi, S. (2024). Changes in natural forest land cover of the Eucalyptus urophylla type in the Mutis Timau area in 2002-2022, East Nusa Tenggara Province. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management, 11(3), 5659–5672.



Research Article