Indexed By
Article Tools
Email this article (Login required)
Email the author (Login required)
About The Authors

Pungky Ferina
Sebelas Maret University

Master Student of Soil Science Department, Sebelas Maret University

M M A Retno Rosariastuti
Sebelas Maret University

Department of Soil Science

Widyatmansi Sih Dewi
ORCID iD Sebelas Maret University

Author Guidelines

SJR Rank

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Sinta Rank

Sinta Rank

Visitor Statistic

Cadmium mapping and contamination potential on different paddy field managements in Sragen Regency, Indonesia

Pungky Ferina, M M A Retno Rosariastuti, Widyatmansi Sih Dewi
  J. Degrade. Min. Land Manage. , pp. 2513-2524  
Viewed : 666 times


Cadmium (Cd) is a harmful metal for paddy soil that is affected by inorganic fertilizer, pesticides, and industrialization. This study aimed to investigate the Cd contents in paddy soil, plant tissue, and grain, as well as the spatial distribution of potential Cd contamination. This study was conducted in Sragen Regency on paddy fields with different management, i.e., organic paddy fields, conventional paddy fields (Alfisols, Entisols, Inceptisols, and Vertisols), and paddy fields that often use wastewater (textiles, batik, and sugar factories) for irrigation. Forest land was used as a control. This study used descriptive explorative methods based on overlay land use, soil type, and industrial distribution map of Sragen Regency. The results showed that paddy soils with different management had higher Cd content than the forest soil. Organic paddy field had the lowest Cd content in soil (0.019 ppm) and rice grain (0.0006 ppm). Approximately 1,914.4 ha (3%) of paddy field in Sragen Regency that uses sugarcane industry wastewater as irrigation had the highest soil Cd content (0.16 ppm). In contrast, the highest Cd content in rice grain (0.046 ppm) was observed in conventional paddy field. The management of paddy field and rice cultivation significantly affected Cd contamination in soil and rice grain; therefore, environmentally friendly paddy field management needs to be encouraged.


heavy metal; pollution; remediation; spatial distribution; toxic

Full Text:



Arao T., Kawasaki A., Baba K., Mori S. and Matsumoto S. 2009. Effects of water management on cadmium and arsenic accumulation and dimethylarsinic acid concentrations in Japanese rice. Environmental Science and Technology 43: 9361-9367.

Arifin, M., Utomo, W.H. and Wardiyati, T. 2015. The potential of Lumbricus rubellus as a bioaccumulator of excess Pb and Cd in organic media. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 2(4): 397-402, doi: 10.15243/jdmlm.2014.024.397.

Balittanah. 2009. Soil Chemical Analysis, Plant, Water, and fertilizer. Bogor.

BPOM [The Agency Food and Drug Control of Indonesia]. 2017. Maximum limit of heavy metal contamination in food processed. pp. 10-11.

BPS [Statistic Central Agency]. 2018. Sragen Regency in Figures. pp. 33140-1804.

BPS [Statistic Central Agency]. 2020. Indonesian statistics in the infographic 2020. 31 Mei 2020.

BSNI [Indonesian National Standardization Agency]. 2009. Maximum limit of heavy metal contamination in the food. Jakarta.

Chai, L., Yang, Y., Zhao, Y. and Wang, H. 2020 Chemosphere transcriptome analysis of genes expressed in the earthworm Eisenia fetida in response to cadmium exposure. Chemosphere 240: 1-12.

Du, Y., Hu, X.F., Wu X.H., Shu, Y., Jiang, Y. and Yan, X-J. 2013. Affects of mining activities on Cd pollution to the paddy soils and rice grain in Hunan province, Central South China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 185: 9843-9856, doi 10.1007/s10661-013-3296-y.

Elyamine, A. M., Moussa, M., Ismael, M., Wei, J., Zhao, Y., Wu, Y. and Hu, C. 2018. Earthworms, rice straw, and plant interactions change the organic connections in soil and promote the decontamination of cadmium in soil. Environmental Research and Public Health 15: 1-20, doi: 10.3390/ijerph15112398.

Erfandi, D. and Juarsah, I. 2014. Heavy Metal Pollution Control Technology on Agricultural Land. In: Agus, F., Subardja. D., Soelaeman, Y. (eds.), Soil Conservation Facing Climate Change. Agricultural Research and Development Agency. Ministry of Agriculture. Pp. 159-186 (in Indonesian).

Ferina, P., Rosariastuti, R. and Supriyadi. 2017a. The effectiveness of Mendong plant (Fimbrystilis globulosa) as a phytoremediator of soil contaminated with chromium of industrial waste. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 4(4): 899-905, doi: 10.15243/jdmlm.2017.044.899.

Ferina, P., Supriyadi, and Rosariastuti, R. 2017b. Proceedings of International Symposium on Soil Management for Sustainable Agriculture. Phytoremediation of soil contaminated by chromium Cr) of industrial waste using Mendong plant (Fimbrystilis globulosa) in its combination with agrobacterium Sp I3 or organic matter. Gifu University, Japan, pp. 79-84.

Guo, J., Li, K., Zhang, X., Huang H., Huang, F., Zhang, L., Wang, Y., Li, T. and Yu H. 2019. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety genetic properties of cadmium translocation from straw to brown rice in low-grain cadmium rice Oryza sativa L. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 182: 109-422.

Koch, A., Mcbratney, A., Adam, M., Field, D., Hill, R., Crawford, J., Minasny, B., Lal, R., Abbott, L. and D'onel, A. 2018. Soil security? solving the global soil crisis. Global Policy 4(4): 432-441, doi: 10.1111/1758-5899.12096.

Kurnia, U., Suganda, H., Saraswati, R. and Nurjaya. 2007. Rice field pollution control technology. Pati : Balingtan Pers.

Li, H., Luo, H., Li, Y., Cai, Q., Li, H., Mo, C. and Wong, M. 2017. Cadmium in rice?: transport mechanisms, influencing factors and minimize measure. Environmental Pollution 224: 622-630.

Liu, X., Tian, G., Jiang, D., Zhang, C. and Kong, L. 2016. Cadmium (Cd) distribution and contamination in Chinese paddy soils on national scale. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 23 (18): 17941-17952.

Luo, L. Y., Xia, L.L., Jin, D., Mi, B.B., Wang, D., Li, X., Dai, X., Zou, X., Zhang, Z., Ma, Y. and Liu, F. 2019. Bacterial community response to cadmium contamination of agricultural paddy soil. Applied Soil Ecology 139: 100-106.

María, M., Carabali, S., Oliva, F.G. and Paez, L.E. 2020. Effect of Cadmium contamination on the rhizosphere bacterial diversity of Echinocactus platyacanthus. Rhizosphere 13: 100187.

Massoud, R., Hadiani M.R., Hamzehlou, P., and Khosravi-Darani, K. 2019. Bioremediation of heavy metals in food industry: Application of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology 37: 56-60.

Mayer, M., Duan, X., Sunde, P. and Topping, C. 2020. European hares do not avoid newly pesticide-sprayed fields: overspray as unnoticed pathway of pesticide exposure. Science of the Total Environment 715: 136977.

Ministry of Agriculture, Indonesia. 2020. Safe stock until 2020. 02 June 2020.

Mishra, P. and Mishra, M. 2018. Risk Assessment of heavy metal contamination in paddy soil, plants, and grains (Oryza sativa L.). In: Hasmi, M. F. and Varma, A. (eds). Environmental Pollution of Paddy Soils. Springer Nature Switzerland AG. doi:org/10.1007/978-3-319-93671-0.

Nababan, W., Jati, A. and Mawarni, L. 2017. Effectiveness of the absorption Cd (cadmium) heavy metal by Ketul plants (Bidens Pilosa L) with the addition of mycorrhizae and EDTA. UAJY e-journal 1-14.

PP RI No 101, 2014. 2014. Indonesia Republic Government regulation number 101, years 2014.

Pradika, V., Masykuri, M. and Supriyadi. 2019. Farmer awareness to the dangers of heavy metal cadmium (Cd) pollution due to over-fertilization in Sragen Regency Central Java. Caraka Tani 34(1) : 76-85.

Qin, S., Liu, H., Nie, Z., Rengel, Z., Gao, W., Li, C., and Zhao, P. 2020. Toxicity of cadmium and its competition with mineral nutrients for uptake by plants? a review. Pedosphere 30(2) : 168-180.

Quan, G., Fan, Q., Cui, L., Zimmerman, A., Wang, H., Zhu, Z., Gao, B., Wu, L. and Yan, J. 2020. Simulated photocatalytic aging of biochar in soil ecosystem? Insight into organic carbon release, surface physicochemical properties and cadmium sorption. Environmental Research 183: 109241.

Rizwan, M., Ali, S., Adress, M., Rizvi, H., Rahman, M., Qayyum, M., Hafeez, F. and Ok, Y. 2016. Cadmium stress in rice: toxic effects, tolerance mechanisms, and management: a critical review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 23(18): 17859-17879.

Rodríguez-Eugenio, N., McLaughlin, M. and Pennock, D. 2018. Soil pollution: a hidden reality. Rome, FAO. 142 pp. ISBN 978-92-5-130505-8.

Sa'ad, N.S., Artanti, R. and Dewi, T. 2009. Phytoremediation for the rehabilitation of agricultural land contaminated by Cadmium and Copper. Jurnal Tanah dan Iklim 30(18): 59-66.

WHO. 2003. Chemical fact sheets: Cadmium. World Health Organization: 317-319.

Wu, C., Shi, L. and Xue, S. 2018. Effect of sulfur-iron modified biochar on the available cadmium and bacterial community structure in contaminated soils. Science of the Total Environment 10(647): 1158-1168.

Yang, S., Gu, S., He, M, Tang, X., Ma, L. Q., Xu, J. and Liu, X. 2020. Policy adjustment impacts Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn contamination in soils around e-waste area: Concentrations, sources and health risks. Science of the Total Environment 741, 140442: 1-9.

Ye, X,. Li, H., Ma, Y., Wu, L. and Sun, B. 2014.The bioaccumulation of Cd in rice grains in paddy soils as affected and predicted by soil properties. Journal Soils Sediments 14:1407-1416.

Yu, Y., Li, X., Yang, G., Wang, Y., Wang, X., Cai, L. and Liu, S. 2019. Joint toxic effects of cadmium and four pesticides on the earthworm (Eisenia fetida). Chemosphere 227: 489-495, doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.04.064.

Za, M. and Varma, A. 2018. Environmental Pollution of Paddy Soils. Switzerland: Springer.

Zaozheng, W., Changzhou, Y., Hainan, K. and Du, W. 2010. Mechanisms of Cadmium Toxicity to Various Trophic Saltwater Organisms. New York: Nova Science Publisher, Inc.

Zhang, C., Tao, Y., Li, S., Ke, T., Wang, P., Wei, S. and Chen, L. 2020. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety bioremediation of Cadmium-trichlorfon co-contaminated soil by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) associated with the trichlorfon-degrading microbe Aspergillus sydowii: Related physiological responses and soil enzyme activities. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 188(30): 109-756.

Zhang, X., Chen, D., Zhou, T., Zhang, X., Cheng, M. and Li, X. 2015. Assessment of cadmium (Cd) concentration in arable soil in China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22(7): 4932-4941.

Ziper, C., Komarneni, S. and Baker, D. E. 1988. Specific Cadmium sorption in relation to the crystal chemistry of clay minerals. Soil Science Society of America Journal 52: 49-53.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Indexed By