Land suitability evaluation for Curcuma zedoaria Rosc. in the community forest of the upstream Bengawan Solo watershed, Wonogiri, Indonesia


  • Widyatmani Sih Dewi Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Sebelas Maret University
  • Supriyadi Supriyadi Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Sebelas Maret University
  • Purwanto Purwanto Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Sebelas Maret University
  • Aisyah Defara Rahmadani Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Sebelas Maret University
  • Wahyu Galang Pranata Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Sebelas Maret University
  • Ganjar Herdiansyah Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Sebelas Maret University



agroforestry, understory, white turmeric


The soil in the upstream Bengawan Solo watershed is at high risk of degradation related to a high erosion rate. Finding the proper crop type with land suitability is critical to protect against further soil degradation. This study aimed to determine the land suitability of white turmeric (Curcuma zedoaria) and the limiting factors in the upstream Bengawan Solo watershed community forest. This research was descriptive-explorative based on a survey of four land map units (LMUs) of Sumberejo village (LMU1, LMU2, LMU3, and LMU4), Batuwarno, Wonogiri. The number of sample points at each LMU depended on the total area of the LMU and was repeated four times. LMU results from overlay soil type maps, administrative maps, rainfall maps, and slope maps. Land suitability assessment was analyzed using the matching method. The land suitability classes of the upstream Bengawan Solo for white turmeric were S3 eh, and N eh. The limiting factors on land suitability for white turmeric are erosion hazards and slopes. The efforts to improve the limiting factor can be made by contour cultivation and repairing the terrace.

Author Biography

Widyatmani Sih Dewi, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Sebelas Maret University

Department of Soil Science, Agriculture Faculty, Universitas Sebelas Maret


Adnan, S., Aldefae, A.H. and Humaish, W.H. 2021. Soil erosion and the influenced factors. IOP Conference: Materials Science and Engineering 1058(1):012041, doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1058/ 1/012041.

Ahmad, F., Talukdar, N.R., Goparaju, L., Biradar, C., Dhyani, S.K. and Rizvi, J. 2022. GIS-Based assessment of land-agroforestry potentiality of Jharkhand State, India. Regional Sustainability 3(3):254-268, doi:10.1016/j.regsus.2022.10.004.

Akpan, I.I., Muoneke, C.O. and Okpara, D.A. 2013. Effect of egusi planting density on productivity of egusi/turmeric intercrops in Southeastern Nigeria. Asian Journal of Crop Science 5:41-47, doi:10.3923/ajcs.2013.41.47.

Amsili, J.P., Van Es, H.M. and Schindelbeck, R.R. 2021. Cropping system and soil texture shape soil health outcomes and scoring functions. Soil Security 4:100012, doi:10.1016/j.soisec.2021.100012.

Anusha, B.N., Babu, K.R., Kumar, B.P., Sree, P.P., Veeraswamy, G., Priya, C.S. and Rajasekhar, M. 2022. Integrated studies for land suitability analysis towards sustainable agricultural development in semi-arid regions of AP, India. Geosystems and Geoenvironment 100131, doi:10.1016/j.geogeo.2022.100131.

Arifah, S.M., Sri Budiastuti, M.T., Dewi, W.S. and Supriyadi. 2021. Vermicompost formulation based on soybean husk and cow manure on shallots. International Journal of Design and Nature Ecodynamics 16(3):327-333, doi:10.18280/ijdne.160312.

Ben-Noah, I., Nitsan, I., Cohen, B., Kaplan, G. and Friedman, S.P. 2021. Soil aeration using air injection in a citrus orchard with shallow groundwater. Agricultural Water Management 245:106664, doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2020.106664.

BPS. 2018. Indonesian Biopharmaceutical Plant Statistics. Central Bureau of Statistics. Indonesia (in Indonesian).

Dharamraj, R. and Govindaraju. 2020. Assessment of land suitability potentials for agriculture in Koranahalli subwatershed using remote sensing & GIS. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 8(2):2128-2137.

Dornik, A., Cheţan, M.A., Drăguţ, L., Iliuţă, A. and Dicu, D.D. 2022. Importance of the mapping unit on the land suitability assessment for agriculture. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 201:107305, doi:10.1016/j.compag.2022.107305.

Ekawati, S. 2006. Farmers' local wisdom in the rehabilitation of critical land (case study in Sumberejo Village, Batuwarno District, Wonogiri Regency). Jurnal Penelitian Sosial & Ekonomi Kehutanan 3(3):205-214. doi:10.20886/jpsek.2006.3.3.205-214 (in Indonesian).

Eviati and Sulaeman. 2012. Technical Instructions for Chemical Analysis of Soil, Plants, Water, and Fertilizers (2nd ed.). Soil Research Institute. Bogor (in Indonesian).

FAO. 1983. Guidelines : Land Evaluation for Rainfed Agriculture. FAO Soils Bulletin (Vol. 52).

Gartzia-Bengoetxea, N., Martínez de Arano, I. and Arias-González, A. 2021. Forest productivity and associated soil ecosystem services remain altered 15 years after mechanized site preparation for reforestation with Pinus Radiata. Soil and Tillage Research 213:105150, doi:10.1016/j.still.2021.105150.

Gavrilescu, M. 2021. Water, soil, and plant interactions in a threatened environment. Water 13(19):2746, doi:10.3390/w13192746.

Girma, R., Moges, A. and Quraishi, S. 2015. GIS-based physical land suitability evaluation for crop production in eastern agrotechnology GIS-based physical land suitability evaluation for crop production in Eastern Ethiopia: a case study in Jello watershed. Agrotechnology 5(1):1-7 (January), doi:10.4172/2168-9881.1000139.

Habi, M.L., Prasetya, B., Prijono, S. and Kusuma, Z. 2014. the effect of sago pith waste granule compost and inorganic fertilizer on soil physical characteristics and corn (Zea mays L.) production in Inceptisol. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology 8(2):32-40, doi:10.9790/2402-08223240.

Hadi, E.E.W., Widyastuti, S.M. and Wahyuono, S. 2016. Diversity and utilization of understory in agroforestry system of Menoreh Hill, Kulon Progo Regency. Jurnal Manusia dan Lingkungan 23(2):206, doi:10.22146/jml.18792 (in Indonesian).

Herdiansyah, G., Arifin, M. and Suriadikusumah, A. 2022. The pedogenesis of Inceptisols on southeast toposequence of Mount Manglayang in West Java, Indonesia. Indonesian Journal on Geoscience 9(2):195-208, doi:10.17014/ijog.9.2.195-208.

Ingle, S.N., Nagaraju, M.S.S., Girdekar, S.B., Sahu, N., Tiwary, P., Srivastava, R., Giri, S.P. and Yadav, S.K. 2019. Land evaluation for suitability of diversified cropping system in Bareli watershed of Seoni District, Madhya Pradesh using GIS. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 8(2S):949-954.

Islam, M.M., Cockx, L., Meerschman, E., De Smedt, P., Meeuws, F. and Van Meirvenne, M. 2011. A floating sensing system to evaluate soil crop variability within flooded paddy rice fields. Precision Agriculture 12:850-859, doi:10.1007/s11119-011-9226-5.

Jinger, D., Kumar, R., Kakade, V., Dinesh, D., Singh, G., Pande, V.C., Bhatnagar, P.R., Rao, B.K., Vishmakarma, A.K., Kumar, D. and Singhal, V. 2022. Agroforestry for controlling soil erosion and enhancing system productivity in Ravine Lands of Western India under climate change scenario. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 194(4):267, doi:10.1007/s10661-022-09910-z.

Krishna, M.P. and Mohan, M. 2017. Litter decomposition in forest ecosystems: a review. Energy, Ecology and Environment 2(4):236-249, doi:10.1007/s40974-017-0064-9.

Kurşun, G. and Dengiz, O. 2020. Assessment of land suitability for the production of major crops in Ayrancı District of Karaman Province, located in an arid terrestrial ecosystem. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 9(1):24-33, doi:10.18393/ejss.642200.

Minardi, S. and Widjianto, H. 2004. Fertility management in rice fields with organic farming systems. Sains Tanah 3(1):34-38 (in Indonesian).

Minister of Forestry of the Republic of Indonesia. 2009. Decree of the Minister of Forestry of the Republic of Indonesia Number: Sk. 328/Menhut-Ii/2009 Concerning Determination of Priority Watersheds (DAS) in the framework of the 2010-2014 Medium Term Development Plan (RPJM), 8. (in Indonesian).

Mohana, P., Nethaji, M.V.E. and Manoharan, N. 2009. Land suitability analysis for the part of Parambikulam Aliyar Command Area, Udumalpet Taluk using remote sensing and GIS techniques. International Journal on Design and Manufacturing Technologies 3(2):98-102, doi:10.18000/ijodam.70069.

Moisa, M.B., Tiye, F.S., Dejene, I.N. and Gemeda, D.O. 2022. Land suitability analysis for maize production using geospatial technologies in the Didessa Watershed, Ethiopia. Artificial Intelligence in Agriculture 6:34-46, doi:10.1016/j.aiia.2022.02.001.

Mu, W., Yu, F., Li, C., Xie, Y., Tian, J., Liu, J. and Zhao, N. 2015. Effects of rainfall intensity and slope gradient on runoff and soil moisture content on different growing stages of spring maize 1, 2990-3008. Water 7(6):2990-3008, doi:10.3390/w7062990.

Mujiyo, Hardian, T., Widijanto, H. and Herawati, A. 2022. Assessment of soil degradation potency for biomass production and the strategy for its management in Giriwoyo-Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 986(1), doi:10.1088/1755-1315/986/1/012036.

Nematollahi, M.J., Ebrahimi, P., Razmara, M. and Ghasemi, A. 2016. Hydrogeochemical Investigations and Groundwater Quality Assessment of Torbat-Zaveh Plain, Khorasan Razavi, Iran. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 188(1):2, doi:10.1007/s10661-015-4968-6,

Pandey, D.N. 2007. Multifunctional agroforestry systems in India. Current Science 92(4):455-463.

Rakesh, S., Sinha, A.K. and Mukhopadhyay, P. 2020. Vertical distribution of TOC, TN and other important soil attributes and their relationship in Alfisol and Entisol of West Bengal. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change 10(1):62-73, doi:10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i130176.

Raza, S., Zamanian, K., Ullah, S., Kuzyakov, Y., Virto, I. and Zhou, J. 2021. Inorganic carbon losses by soil acidification jeopardize global efforts on carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation. Journal of Cleaner Production 315:128036, doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.128036.

Ritung, S., Nugroho, K., Mulyani, A. and Suryani, E. 2011. Technical Guidelines for Land Evaluation for Agricultural Commodities. Center of Research and Development of Agricultural Land Resources, Agency for Agricultural Research and Development. Bogor. 168 pp. (in Indonesian).

Sarkar, A., Ghosh, A. and Banik, P. 2014. Multi-criteria land evaluation for suitability analysis of wheat: a case study of a watershed in the Eastern Plateau Region, India. Geo-Spatial Information Science 17(2):119-128, doi:10.1080/10095020.2013.774106.

Silalahi, M. 2020. Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe: benefits and bioactivity. Eureka Herba Indonesia 1(2):41-48, doi:10.37275/ehi.v1i2.10.

Singh, S., Ghosh, N.C., Gurjar, S., Krishan, G., Kumar, S. and Berwal, P. 2018. Index-based assessment of suitability of water quality for irrigation purpose under Indian conditions. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 190(1):29, doi:10.1007/s10661-017-6407-3.

Singh, V., Johar, V., Kumar, R. and Chaudary, M. 2021. Socio-economic and environmental assets sustainability by agroforestry systems: a review. International Journal of Agriculture Environment and Biotechnology 14(4):521-533, doi:10.30954/0974-1712.04.2021.6.

Singha, C. and Swain, K.C. 2016. Land suitability evaluation criteria for agricultural crop selection: a review. Agricultural Reviews 37(2):125-132, doi:10.18805/ar.v37i2.10737.

Strawn, D.G. 2021. Sorption mechanisms of chemicals in soils. Soil Systems 5(1):13, doi:10.3390/soilsystems5010013.

Suntoro, S., Mujiyo, M., Widijanto, H. and Herdiansyah, G. 2020. Cultivation of rice (Oryza sativa), corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) based on land suitability. Journal of Settlements and Spatial Planning 11(1):9-16, doi:10.24193/JSSP.2020.1.02.

Suryani, I., Nontji, M. and Juita, N. 2021. Morphological characteristics and classification of Inceptisol in Mamuju Regency, West Sulawesi. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 807(4):042043, doi:10.1088/1755-1315/807/4/042043.

Sutrisno, J., Sanim, B., Saefuddin, A. and Sitorus, S.R.P. 2011. Policy directions for erosion and sedimentation control in the Keduang Watershed, Wonogiri Regency. Sains Tanah: Journal of Soil Science and Agroclimatology 8(2):105-118 (in Indonesian).

Tang, C., Liu, Y., Li, Z., Guo, L., Xu, A. and Zhao, J. 2021. Effectiveness of vegetation cover pattern on regulating soil erosion and runoff generation in red soil environment, Southern China. Ecological Indicators 129:107956, doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2021.107956.

Vogt, R.D., Guo, J., Luo, J., Peng, X., Xiang, R., Xiao, J., Zhang, X., Xhao, D. and Zhao, Y. 2007. Water chemistry in forested acid sensitive sites in sub-tropical Asia receiving acid rain and alkaline dust. Applied Geochemistry 22(6):1140-1148, doi:10.1016/ j.apgeochem.2007.03.005.

Wahyunto, Hikmatullah, Suryani, E., Tafakresnanto, C., Ritung, S., Mulyani, A., Sukarman, Nugroho, K., Sulaeman, Y., Apriyana, Y., Suciantini, Pramudia, A., Suparto, Subandiono, R.E., Sutriadi, T. and Nursyamsi, D. 2016. Guidelines for the Assessment of Land Suitability for Strategic Agricultural Commodities at Semi Detailed Level 1:50,000 Scale. Center for Research and Development of Agricultural Land Resources, Bogor (in Indonesian).

Widyaningsih, T.S. and Achmad, B. 2012. Financial analysis of community forest farming in the “wanafarma†pattern in Majenang, Central Java. Jurnal Pwenelitian Hutan Tanaman 9(2):105-120, doi:10.20886/jpht. 2012.9.2.105-120 (in Indonesian).

Xu, G., Cheng, Y., Li, P., Li, Z., Zhang, J. and Wang, T. 2015. Effects of natural rainfall on soil and nutrient erosion on sloping cropland in a small watershed of the Dan River, China. Quaternary International 380-381:327-333, doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2015.02.010.

Young, A. 2016. Land Evaluation and Forestry Management. In: Laslo Pancel, L. and Michael Köhl, M. (eds.), Tropical Forestry Handbook, Second Edition, Springer, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-54601-3








How to Cite

Dewi, W. S., Supriyadi, S., Purwanto, P., Rahmadani, A. D., Pranata, W. G., & Herdiansyah, G. (2023). Land suitability evaluation for Curcuma zedoaria Rosc. in the community forest of the upstream Bengawan Solo watershed, Wonogiri, Indonesia. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management, 10(3), 4369–4377.



Research Article