Indexed By
SJR Rank

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Article Tools
Email this article (Login required)
Email the author (Login required)
About The Authors

Muhammad Nur Fauzan
Postgraduate of Agriculture Economics Program, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Brawijaya

Postgraduate Student of Agriculuture Economics Program, Faculty of Agriculture

Rini Dwiastuti
Agriculture Socio-Economics Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Brawijaya

Agriculture Socio-Economics Departement, Faculty of Agriculture

Sujarwo Sujarwo
Agriculture Socio-Economics Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Brawijaya

Agriculture Socio-Economics Departement, Faculty of Agriculture

Syahrul Kurniawan
Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Brawijaya

Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture

Author Guidelines

Visitor Statistic

Changes in soil characteristics and estimated cost on reclamation of former sand mining land

Muhammad Nur Fauzan, Rini Dwiastuti, Sujarwo Sujarwo, Syahrul Kurniawan
  J. Degrade. Min. Land Manage. , pp. 3533-3543  
Viewed : 145 times


The utilization of natural resources in recent decades is not accompanied by proper and effective management. This has a major impact on environmental degradation in watershed scale and climate change. The study aimed to evaluate changes in soil characteristics at various ages of sand mining and the cost of reclamation of environmental degradation due to sand mining activities. The study was conducted in Sumberbulu Micro Watershed, which is located in Wajak Sub-District, Malang Regency. Soil sampling was collected from un-mined, 2 to 6 years old sand mining and post-mining lands. Natural resource equivalency analysis (REA) was applied for environmental damage assessment and reclamation cost calculation required to restore natural resource services to their original condition. The findings show that sand mining activities significantly decreased soil organic C in 0-40 cm soil depth, resulting in increased soil bulk density and decreased soil porosity at 20-40 cm depth of soil. Sand mining activities by using truck traffic carrying mining products, soil erosion, and the removal of topsoil during mining activities determined changes in soil properties. REA shows that the total area of land that must be reclaimed is 21,487 ha. The land will be reclaimed by revegetation (with maize) to restore the lost function of environmental services and income of local farmers, assuming a reclamation cost of 36,767,500 IDR/ha. Therefore, post-mining land reclamation should be encouraged by the government for mining business actors in Indonesia so that the land can be reused as before.


land degradation; post-mining land reclamation; resource equivalency analysis; sand mining; soil characteristics

Full Text:



Aitken, D., Rivera, D., Godoy-Faúndez, A. and Holzapfel, E. 2016. Water scarcity and the impact of the mining and agricultural sectors in Chile. Sustainability 8(2):128, doi:10.3390/su8020128.

Ako, T.A., Onoduku, U.S., Oke, S.A., Essien, B.I., Idris, F.N., Umar, A.N. and Ahmed, A.A. 2014. Environmental effects of sand and gravel mining on land and soil in Luku, Minna, Niger State, North Central Nigeria. Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics 2(2):42-49, doi:10.12691/jgg-2-2-1.

Andrade, B.O., Koch, C., Boldrini, I.I., Vélez-Martin, E., Hasenack, H., Hermann, J.M., Kollmann, J., Pillar, V.D. and Overbeck, G. E. 2015. Grassland degradation and restoration: a conceptual framework of stages and thresholds illustrated by southern Brazilian grasslands. Natureza and Conservação 13(2):95-104, doi:10.1016/j.ncon.2015.08.002.

Asabonga, M., Cecilia, B., Mpundu, M.C. and Vincent, N.M.D. 2017. The physical and environmental impacts of sand mining. Transaction of the Royal Society of South Africa 72(1):1-5, doi:10.1080/0035919X.2016.1209701.

Ashraf, M.A., Maah, M.J., Yusoff, I., Wajid, A. and Mahmood, K. 2011. Sand mining effects, causes and concerns: A case study from Bestari Jaya, Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. Scientific Research and Essays 6(6):1216-1231, doi:10.5897/SRE10.690.

Asiedu, J. 2013. Technical report on reclamation of smallscale surface mined lands in Ghana: A landscape perspective. American Journal of Environmental Protection 1(2):28-33, doi:10.12691/env-1-2-3.

Ayenagbo, K., Kimatu, J.N., Gondwe, J. and Rongcheng, W. 2011. The transportation and marketing implications of sand and gravel and its environmental impact in Lome-Togo. Journal of Economics and International Finance 3(3):125-138, doi:10.5897/JEIF.9000113.

Bagchi, P. 2010. Unregulated sand mining threatens Indian rivers. The Journal India Together 21:7-9.

Balanay, R.M., Yorobe, J.M., Panduyos, O.K., and Cuenca, C.C. 2014. Analyzing the income effects of mining with instrumental variables for poverty reduction implications in Caraga Region, Philippines. Journal of International and Global Economic Studies 7(1):20-31.

Barbier, E.B. 2013. Valuing ecosystem services for coastal wetland protection and restoration: Progress and challenges. Resources 2(3):213-230, doi:10.3390/resources2030213.

Bebbington, A., Bebbington, D. H., Bury, J., Lingan, J., Muñoz, J. P. and Scurrah, M. 2008. Mining and social movements: struggles over livelihood and rural territorial development in the Andes. World Development 36(12):2888-2905, doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2007.11.016.

Blake, G.R. and Hartge, K.H. 1986. Bulk density. In Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1: Physical and Mineralogical Methods, 2nd ed. (A. Klute, ed.) pp. 363-75. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, USA, doi:10.2136/sssabookser5.1.2ed.c13.

Bulluck Iii, L.R., Brosius, M., Evanylo, G.K. and Ristaino, J.B. 2002. Organic and synthetic fertility amendments influence soil microbial, physical and chemical properties on organic and conventional farms. Applied Soil Ecology 19(2):147-160, doi:10.1016/S0929-1393(01)00187-1.

Bury, J. and Kolff, A. 2002. Livelihoods, mining and peasant protests in the Peruvian Andes. Journal of Latin American Geography 3-16, doi:10.1353/lag.2007.0018.

Canel, E., Idemudia, U. and North, L.L. 2010. Rethinking extractive industry: Regulation, dispossession, and emerging claims. Canadian Journal of Development Studies/Revue Canadienne D'études du Développement 30(1-2):5-25, doi:10.1080/02255189.2010.9669279.

Carson, R.T. 2012. Contingent valuation: A practical alternative when prices aren't available. Journal of Economic Perspectives 26(4):27-42, doi:10.1257/jep.26.4.27.

Chaudhari, P.R., Ahire, D.V., Ahire, V.D., Chkravarty, M. and Maity, S. 2013. Soil bulk density as related to soil texture, organic matter content and available total nutrients of Coimbatore soil. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications 3(2):1-8.

Chaussard, E. and Kerosky, S. 2016. Characterization of black sand mining activities and their environmental impacts in the Philippines using remote sensing. Remote Sensing 8(2):100, doi:10.3390/rs8020100.

Chevallier, R. 2014. Illegal Sand Mining in South Africa. SAIIA Policy Briefing No 116.

Cotrufo, M.F., Soong, J.L., Horton, A.J., Campbell, E.E., Haddix, M.L., Wall, D.H. and Parton, W.J. 2015. Formation of soil organic matter via biochemical and physical pathways of litter mass loss. Nature Geoscience 8(10):776-779, doi:10.1038/ngeo2520

Cotrufo, M.F., Wallenstein, M.D., Boot, C.M., Denef, K. and Paul, E. 2013. The Microbial Efficiency‐Matrix Stabilization (MEMS) framework integrates plant litter decomposition with soil organic matter stabilization: do labile plant inputs form stable soil organic matter?. Global Change Biology 19(4):988-995, doi:10.1111/gcb.12113.

Dariah, A., Abdurachman, A. and Subardja, D. 2010. Reclamation of ex-mining land for agricultural area expansion. Jurnal Sumber Daya Lahan 4(1):1-12 (in Indonesian).

Dent, D., Dubois, O., and Dalal-Clayton, B. 2002. Rural Planning in Developing Countries: Supporting Natural Resource Management and Sustainable Livelihoods (1st ed.). Routledge.

Desvousges, W.H., Gard, N., Michael, H.J., and Chance, A.D. 2018. Habitat and resource equivalency analysis: a critical assessment. Ecological Economics 143:74-89, doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2017.07.003.

Devi, M.A. and Rongmei, L. 2017. Impacts of sand and gravel quarrying on the stream channel and surrounding environment. Asia Pacific Journal of Energy and Environment 4(1):7-12, doi:10.18034/apjee.v4i1.236.

Dunford, R.W., Ginn, T.C. and Desvousges, W.H. 2004. The use of habitat equivalency analysis in natural resource damage assessments. Ecological Economics 48(1):49-70, doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2003.07.011.

Erfandi, D., Rachman, A. and Agus, F. 2019. Rehabilitation of Former Tin Mining Land for Agriculture. Agus, F., Soelaeman, Y. and Anda, M (eds), Technical Guidelines for Rehabilitation of Ex-Mining Land for Agriculture. Jakarta: Agricultural Research and Development Agency, p. 5-17 (in Indonesian).

Farahani, H. and Bayazidi, S., 2018. Modeling the assessment of socio-economical and environmental impacts of sand mining on local communities: A case study of Villages Tatao River Bank in North-western part of Iran. Resources Policy 55:87-95, doi:10.1016/j.resourpol.2017.11.001

Fauzi, A. 2010. Economics of Natural Resources and Environment. Ekonomi Sumber Daya Alam dan Lingkungan. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama (in Indonesian).

Fauzi, A. 2014. Economic Valuation and Damage Assessment of Natural Resources and the Environment. Bogor: IPB Press (in Indonesian).

Foth, H.D. 1994. Fundamental of Soil Science, 6th edition. Translated to Indonesian by Adisoemarto S. Erlangga Press, Jakarta. (in Indonesian).

Gavriletea, M.D. 2017. Environmental impacts of sand exploitation. Analysis of sand market. Sustainability 9(7):1118, doi:10.3390/su9071118.

Gelman, F., Binstock, R. and Halicz, L. 2012. Application of the Walkley–Black titration for the organic carbon quantification in organic rich sedimentary rocks. Fuel 96:608-610, doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2011.12.053.

Green, S.C. 2012. The Regulation of Sand Mining in South Africa. University of Cape Town, Cape Town, Africa [Thesis]. Available online: [accessed on 26 Oktober 2021].

Hairiah, K.,van Noordwijk, M., Sari, R.R., Saputra, D.D., Suprayogo, D., Kurniawan, S., Prayogo, C. and Gusli, S. 2020. Soil carbon stocks in Indonesian (agro) forest transitions: Compaction conceals lower carbon concentrations in standard accounting. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 294:106879, doi:10.1016/j.agee.2020.106879.

Hao, X., Ball, B.C., Culley, J.L.B., Carter, M.R. and Parkin, G.W. 2008. Soil density and porosity. In: Carter, M.R. and Gregorich, E.G. (eds), Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL., pp 743-759.

Hardjowigeno, S. 2007. Soil Science. Jakarta: Akademika Pressindo (in Indonesian).

Hillel, D. (1982). Introduction to Soil Physics. London: Academic Press Inc, doi:10.1016/B978-0-08-091869-3.50005-6.

Irawan and Nuraida, N.L. 2014. Economic Valuation of Soil Conservation Engineering Applications. Agus, F., Subardja, D., Soelaeman, Y (eds), Soil Conservation Facing Climate Change. Bogor: IAARD Press., pp 241-261 (in Indonesian).

Jackson, R.B., Lajtha, K., Crow, S.E., Hugelius, G., Kramer, M.G. and Piñeiro, G. 2017. The ecology of soil carbon: pools, vulnerabilities, and biotic and abiotic controls. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 48:419-445, doi:10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-112414-054234.

Khan, S. and Sugie, A. 2015. Sand mining and its social impacts on local society in rural Bangladesh: A case study of a village in Tangail district. Journal of Urban and Regional Studies on Contemporary India 2(1):1-11.

Kiker, G.A., Bridges, T.S., Varghese, A., Seager, P.T.P. and Linkov, I. 2005. Application of multicriteria decision analysis in environmental decision making. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 1(2):95-108, doi:10.1897/IEAM_2004a-015.1.

Kuffour, R.A., Tiimub, B.M. and Agyapong, D. 2018. Impacts of illegal mining (galamsey) on the environment (water and soil) at Bontefufuo area in the Amansie West District. Journal of Environment and Earth Science 8(7):98-107.

Le, Q.B., Tamene, L., and Vlek, P.L.G. 2012. Multi-pronged assessment of land degradation in West Africa to assess the importance of atmospheric fertilization in masking the processes involved. Global and Planetary Change 92-93:71-81, doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2012.05.003.

Li, Z., Ma, Z., van der Kuijp, T.J., Yuan, Z. and Huang, L. 2014. A review of soil heavy metal pollution from mines in China: pollution and health risk assessment. Science of the Total Environment 468-469:843-853, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.08.090.

Macfarlane, M. and Mitchell, P. 2003. Scoping and Assessment of the Environmental and Social Impacts of River Mining in Jamaica (MERN Working Paper No.32). University of Warwick.

Madyise, T. 2013. Case Studies of Environmental Impacts of Sand Mining and Gravel Extraction for Urban Development in Gaborone. [Thesis]. University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa.

Martinez-Alier, J., Temper, L. and Demaria, F. 2016. Social metabolism and environmental conflicts in India. In Ghosh N., Mukhopadhyay, P., Shah, A., Panda, M. (eds) Nature, Economy and Society (pp. 19-49). New Delhi: Springer, doi:10.1007/978-81-322-2404-4_3.

Masalu, D.C.P. 2002. Coastal erosion and its social and environmental aspects in Tanzania: a case study in illegal sand mining. Coastal Management 30(4):347-359, doi:10.1080/089207502900255.

Ministry of Energy and Mineral Indonesian. 2014. Regulation of the Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Indonesia Number 07 of 2014 concerning the Implementation of Reclamation and Post-mining in Mineral and Coal Mining Business Activities [Internet]. Available online: [accessed on 26 September 2021] (in Indonesian).

Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia. 2009. River Sand Mining Management Guide; Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID): Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Mobtaker, M.M. and Osanloo, M. 2014. Positive impacts of mining activities on environment. In Legislation, Technology and Practice of Mine Land Reclamation. Proceedings of The Beijing International Symposium Land Reclamation and Ecological Restoration, LRER 2014, Beijing, China, 16-19 October. pp 7-14.

Moran, C.J., Lodhia, S., Kunz, N.C., and Huisingh, D. 2014. Sustainability in mining, minerals and energy: new processes, pathways and human interactions for a cautiously optimistic future. Journal of Cleaner Production 84:1-15 doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.09.016.

Musah, J.A. and Barkarson, B.H. 2009. Assessment of Sociological and Ecological Impacts of Sand and Gravel Mining: A Case Study of East Gonja District (Ghana) and Gunnarsholt (Iceland). Land Restoration Training Programme Keldnaholt 112 Reykjavík, Iceland.

Nuraida, N.L. and Jubaedah. 2014. Dryland Carbon Stock Enhancement Technology and Its Potential on a National Scale. Agus, F., Subardja, D., Soelaeman, Y (eds), Soil Conservation Facing Climate Change. Bogor: IAARD Press., pp 53-81. (in Indonesian).

Padmalal, D. and Maya, K. 2014. Sand Mining: Environmental Impacts and Selected Case Studies. Berlin: Springer, doi:10.1007/978-94-017-9144-1.

Padmalal, D., Maya, K., Sreebha, S. and Sreeja, R. 2008. Environmental effects of river sand mining: a case from the river catchments of Vembanad lake, Southwest coast of India. Environmental Geology 54(4):879-889, doi:10.1007/s00254-007-0870-z.

Pearson, T.W. 2013. Frac Sand Mining in Wisconsin: understanding emerging conflicts and community Organizing. Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment 35(1):30-40, doi:10.1111/cuag.12003.

Pegg, S. 2006. Mining and poverty reduction: Transforming rhetoric into reality. Journal of Cleaner Production 14(3-4):376-387, doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2004.06.006.

Piyadasa, R.U.K. 2011. River sand mining and associated environmental problems in Sri Lanka. Proceedings of the Workshop on Sediment Problems and Sediment Management in Watersheds of Asia. September 2009, held in Hyderabad, India, pp 148-153.

Purnomo, M., Utomo, M.R., Pertiwi, V.I.A., Laili, F., Pariasa, I.I., Riyanto, S., Andriatmoko, N.D. and Handono, S.Y. 2021. Resistance to mining and adaptation of Indonesia farmer's household to economic vulnerability of small scale sand mining activities. Local Environment 26(12):1498-1511, doi:10.1080/13549839.2021.1990234.

Qin, Y., Chen, Z., Ding, B. and Li, Z. 2020. Impact of sand mining on the carbon sequestration and nitrogen removal ability of soil in the riparian area of Lijiang River, China. Environmental Pollution 261:1-10, doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114220.

Quétier, F. and Lavorel, S. 2011. Assessing ecological equivalence in biodiversity offset schemes: key issues and solutions. Biological Conservation 144(12):2991-2999, doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2011.09.002.

Ratnayake, R. 2013. Water Integrity in Action. In Curbing Illegal Sand Mining in Sri Lanka; Debere, S. (eds); Water Integrity Network: Berlin, Germany.

Roach, B., and Wade, W.W. 2006. Policy evaluation of natural resource injuries using habitat equivalency analysis. Ecological Economics 58(2):421-433, doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2005.07.019.

Rovira, A., Batalla, R.J. and Sala, M. 2005. Response of a river sediment budget after historical gravel mining (the lower Tordera, NE Spain). River Research and Applications 21(7): 829-847, doi:10.1002/rra.885.

Sanchez, P.A. 2019. Properties and Management of Soils in the Tropics, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (UK) 666 p.

Saviour, M.N. 2012. Environmental impact of soil and sand mining: a review. International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology 1(3):125-134.

Saviour, M.N. and Stalin, P. 2012. Soil and sand mining: causes, consequences and management. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2(4):1-6. doi:

Sayami, M. and Tamrakar, N.K. 2007. Status of sand mining and quality in northern Kathmandu, Central Nepal. Bulletin of the Department of Geology 10:89-98, doi:10.3126/bdg.v10i0.1424.

Schröter, D., Cramer, W., Leemans, R., Prentice, I.C., Araújo, M.B., Arnell, N.W., Bondeau, A., Bugmann, H., Carter, T.R., Gracia, C.A., de la Vega-Leinert, A., Erhard, M., Ewert, F., Glendining, M., House, J., Kankaanpaa, S., Klein, R., Lavorel, S., Lindner, M., Metzger, M., Meyer, J., Mitchell, T., Reginster, I., Rounsevell, M., Sabate, S., Sitch, S., Smith, B., Smith, J., Smith, P., Sykes, M., Thonicke, K., Thuiller, W., Tuck, G., Zaehle, S. and Zierl, B., 2005. Ecosystem Service Supply and Vulnerability to Global Change in Europe. Science 310:1333-1337, doi:10.1126/science.1115233.

Sreebha, S. and Padmalal, D. 2011. Environmental impact assessment of sand mining from the small catchment rivers in the southwestern coast of India: a case study. Environmental Management 47(1):130-140, doi:10.1007/s00267-010-9571-6.

Suastika, I.W. and Haryati, U. 2019. Development of Food Crops on Ex-Mining Land. Agus, F., Soelaeman, Y. and Anda, M (eds), Technical Guidelines for Rehabilitation of Ex-Mining Land for Agriculture. Jakarta: Agricultural Research and Development Agency, p. 19-38 (in Indonesian).

Sukarman. and Gani, R.A. 2020. Ex-coal mine lands and their land suitability for agricultural commodities in South Kalimantan. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 7 (3): 2171-2183, doi:10.15243/jdmlm.2020.073.2171.

Tarnocai, C., Canadell, J.G., Schuur, E.A., Kuhry, P., Mazhitova, G., and Zimov, S. 2009. Soil organic carbon pools in the northern circumpolar permafrost region. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 23(2):1-11, doi:10.1029/2008GB003327.

Tiainen, H., Sairinen, R., and Novikov, V. 2014. Mining in the Chatkal Valley in Kyrgyzstan-Challenge of social sustainability. Resources Policy 39:80-87, doi:10.1016/j.resourpol.2013.11.005.

Vogt, J.V., Safriel, U., Von Maltitz, G., Sokona, Y., Zougmore, R., Bastin, G., and Hill, J. 2011. Monitoring and assessment of land degradation and desertification: towards new conceptual and integrated approaches. Land Degradation and Development 22(2):150-165, doi:10.1002/ldr.1075.

Vu, M.Q., Le, Q.B., Scholz, R.W., and Vlek, P.L.G., 2012. Detecting geographic hotspots of human-induced land degradation in Vietnam and characterization of their social–ecological types. Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 2012 IEEE International, pp. 6220–6223, doi:10.1109/IGARSS.2012.6352679.

Walkley, A. and Black, I.A. 1934. An examination of Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Journal of Soil Science 37:29-38.

Walsh, B., van der Plank, S. and Behrens, P. 2017. The effect of community consultation on perceptions of a proposed mine: A case study from southeast Australia. Resources Policy 51:163-171, doi:10.1109/IGARSS.2012.6352679.

Wang, F. 2017. Occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in mining-impacted sites and their contribution to ecological restoration: Mechanisms and applications. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 47(20):1901-1957, doi:10.1080/10643389.2017.1400853.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Indexed By