Assessment of water quality of the ex-sand mining sites in Pasir Sakti District East Lampung for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture


  • Qadar Hasani Faculty of Agriculture, Lampung University
  • Niken Tunjung Murti Pratiwi Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, IPB University
  • Yusli Wardiatno Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, IPB University
  • Hefni Effendi Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, IPB University
  • Herman Yulianto Faculty of Agriculture, Lampung University
  • Maulid Wahid Yusuf Faculty of Agriculture, Lampung University
  • Rachmad Caesario Faculty of Agriculture, Lampung University
  • F Farlina Integrated Laboratory and Center for Technological Innovation, Lampung University



aquaculture, marginally suitable, matching and scoring, measurements


Sand mining activities in Pasir Sakti District, East Lampung Regency, have changed the landscape and the allotment of land around it. The former sand mining area now becomes large puddles that are not utilized. This study aimed to analyze the suitability of water quality in ex-sand mining areas for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture. Observations were carried out at three stations in January-October 2019. Water quality measurements were performed to check water depth, clarity, temperature, current, dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity, nitrate, phosphate, iron, sulfate, and phytoplankton density. Analysis of suitability for aquaculture was carried out using weighting and scoring methods. Based on the results of the suitability analysis, the scoring result of the sand mining land for O.niloticus culture was in the range of 64% -68%. This score is classified as marginally suitable. The parameters with low scores are clarity, dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, ammonia, phosphate, and iron (Fe) concentration parameters. Meanwhile, salinity, nitrate, sulfate, and phytoplankton density indicate conditions that are suitable for aquaculture. Therefore, severe treatment is needed to improve water quality to make it ideal for O.niloticus culture.

Author Biographies

Qadar Hasani, Faculty of Agriculture, Lampung University

Aquatic Resources Management

Niken Tunjung Murti Pratiwi, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, IPB University

Aquatic Resources Management

Yusli Wardiatno, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, IPB University

Aquatic Resources Management

Hefni Effendi, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, IPB University

Aquatic Resources Management

Herman Yulianto, Faculty of Agriculture, Lampung University

Aquatic Resources

Maulid Wahid Yusuf, Faculty of Agriculture, Lampung University

Aquatic Resources

Rachmad Caesario, Faculty of Agriculture, Lampung University

Aquatic Resources

F Farlina, Integrated Laboratory and Center for Technological Innovation, Lampung University

Integrated Laboratory and Center for Technological Innovation, Lampung University


Affan, J.M. 2012. Identification of location for the development of floating net cages based on environmental and water quality factors in east coast Bangka Tengah District. Journal Depik 1(1):78-85 (in Indonesian).

Anggraini, D.R., Damai, A.A. and Hasani, Q. 2018. Analysis of the suitability of waters for aquaculture of grouper (Cromileptes altivelis) in the waters of Tegal Island, Lampung Bay. Journal of Aquaculture Engineering and Technology 6(2): 719-728 (in Indonesian).

APHA. 2012. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 22nd Ed. American Public Health Association Inc., New York.

Bellinger, E.G. and Sigee, D.C. 2010. Freshwater Algae. Identification and Use as Bioindicators. Wiley-Blackwell. Oxford UK.

Beveridge, M. 1991. Cage Aquaculture. Fishing news books. The USA. Elsevier. Amsterdam 264p.

Boyd, C.E. 1990. Water Quality in Pond for Aquaculture. Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station Auburn University. Birmingham Publishing Co. Alabama.p 88.

CCREM. 2007. Canadian Water Quality. Canadian Council of Resource and Environment Ministers. Ontario. Canada.

Darmayanti, N.C.A., Manaf, A. and Briyatmoko, B. 2000. Identification of Chemical Compounds in Mineral Sand. Proceedings of the National Seminar on Balian Magnet I Serpong, 2 October 2000 (in Indonesian).

Effendi, H. 2003. Water Quality Study: For Water Resources and Environmental Management. Kanisius. Yogyakarta (in Indonesian).

El-Sayed, A.F.M. and Kawanna, M. 2008. Short Communication: Optimum water temperature boosts the growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry reared in a recycling system. Aquaculture Research 39: 670-672

El-Sayed, A.F.M. 2006. Tilapia Culture. CABI Publishing. Cambridge.

El-Sherif, M.S, and El-Feky, A.M.I. 2009. Performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings. I. Effect of pH. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 11(3): 297-300.

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2002. Risk assessment: Technical background information. RBG Table. Available from http: // www. epa gov. / reg 3h wmd / risk.

Firdaus, 2012. Juggling Sand Puddles for Fishing. TROBOS AQUA Magazine edition 15 October - 14 November 2012 (in Indonesian).

Gavriletea, M.D. 2017. Environmental impacts of sand exploitation: analysis of sand market. Sustainability 9(7): 118, doi: 10.3390/su9071118.

Hasani, Q., Adiwilaga, E.M. and Pratiwi, NTM. 2012. The relationship between the harmful algal blooms (HABs) phenomenon with nutrients at shrimp farms and fish cage culture sites in Pesawaran District Lampung Bay. Makara Journal of Science 16(3): 183-191.

Hasani, Q., Pratiwi, N.T.M., Effendi, H., Wardiatno, Y., Raja Guk Guk, J.A., Maharani, H.W. and Rahman, M. 2021a. Azolla pinnata as phytoremediation agent of iron (Fe) in ex sand mining waters. Chiang Mai University Journal of Natural Sciences 20(1): e2021017.

Hasani, Q., Pratiwi, N.T.M., Wardiatno, Y., Effendi, H., Martin, A.N., Effendi, E., Pirdaus, P. and Wagiran. 2021b. Phytoremediation of iron in ex-sand mining waters by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Biodiversitas 22(2): 838-845.

Hastari, I.F., Kurnia, R. and Kamal, M.M. 2017. Analysis of suitability of grouper KJA cultivation using GIS in Lampung's waters. Journal of Tropical Marine Science and Technology 9(1): 151-159.

Hidayati, D., Nurtjahyani, S.D., Oktafitria, D., Ashuri, N.M. and Kurniallah, W. 2019. Short communication: evaluation of water quality and survival rate of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by using a rice-fish culture system in quarry land of clay. Biodiversity 20: 589-594.

Kordi, M.G.H and Tancung, A.B. 2010. Management of Water Quality in Aquaculture. Rineka Cipta Publisher. Jakarta. Jakarta (in Indonesian).

Kurniawan, A. 2012. Analysis of fish genetic variations under post-mining tin by electrophoresis method. Aquatics: Journal of Aquatic Resources 6(2): 6-10 (in Indonesian).

Kurniawan, A. 2018. Introduction to Fish Farming Utilizing Wet Land Post-Tin Mining. Textbooks. Bangka Belitung University Press. 107 pp (in Indonesian).

Kutty, M.N. 1987. Site Selection for Aquaculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and African Regional Aquaculture Center Port Harcourt. Nigeria.

Lucas, J.S., Southgate, P.C. and Tucker, C.S. 2018. Aquaculture: Farming Aquatic Animals and Plants. 3rd ed. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Menezes, A., Hishamunda, N., Lovshin, L. and Martone, E. 2017. Doing aquaculture as a business for small-and medium-scale farmers. Practical training manual. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Rome.

Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries of the Republic of Indonesia. 2011. Technical Instructions for Fish Culture in Floating Network Cages. Directorate General of Aquaculture. Jakarta (in Indonesian).

Muhaemi, Tumuhuri, R. and Siegers, W. 2015. The suitability of water quality for tilapia cages (Oreochromis niloticus) in East Sentani Lake, Jayapura Regency, Papua Province. The Journal of Fisheries Development 1(2):45–58 (in Indonesian).

Muhtadi, A., Pulungan, A., Nurmaiyah, Fadlhin, A., Melati, P., Sinaga, R.Z., Uliya, R., Rizki, M., Rohim, N., Ifanda, D., Leidonald, R., Wahyuningsih, H. and Hasani, Q. 2020. The dynamics of the plankton community on Lake Siombak, a tropical tidal lake in North Sumatra, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 21: 3707-3719.

Octorina, P., Novita, M.Z., Kustiawan, B. and Nurbaeti, N. 2017. Potential of forms of sand forms for fisheries in cultured based fisheries (CBF) systems and floating cages. Limnotek 24 (1): 44-5 (in Indonesian).

Octorina, P., Nurbaety, N., Kustiawan, B. and Dindin. 2013. Trophic Status and Potential of Former Galian Pasir Fisheries in Titisan Village, Sukabumi Regency. Proceedings of the National Seminar on Fisheries X. Yogyakarta. August 28-29, 2013 (in Indonesian).

Popma, T.J, and Lovshin, L.L. 1996. World prospect for commercial production of tilapia. Research and Development Series No. 41. International Center for Aquaculture and Aquatic Environments, Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures of Auburn University, Alabama.

Pramono, G.H., Hari, S. and Wiwin, A. 2005. Norms, Procedures, Guidelines, Specifications and Standards (NPGSS). Procedures and Technical Specifications Analysis of the Suitability of Grouper Cultivation in Floating Net Cages. Bakosurtanal: Marine Natural Resources Survey Center. Jakarta (in Indonesian).

PT. Jaya Paciï¬c Propertindo (without years). Proposed Sand Mining, Special Sand Terminal and Tambak House in East Lampung Regency.

Radiarta, A., Saputra, and Priono, B. 2014. Areas of suitability mapping for mariculture development in Sateh Bay, West Nusa Tenggara. Indonesian Fisheries Research Journal 10: 19‒32.

Rizqan, A., Mahyudin, I., Rahman, M. and Hadie, J. 2016. Status of river water quality around the sand mining area in Batang Alai River, Wawai Village, South Kalimantan. EnviroScienteae 12 (1): 1-6 (in Indonesian).

Sari, D.P, and Buchori, I. 2015. The effectiveness of the post tin mining reclamation program in Merawang District, Bangka Regency. Journal of Urban Area Development 11(3): 299-312.

Setiadi, E, Widyastuti, Y.R. and Prihadi, T.H. 2018. Water quality, survival, and growth of red tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus cultured in aquaponics system. E3S Web of Conferences 47: 1-8.

Supardan, K.M., Sukmawan, A. and Sutandi S. 2006. Inventory and evaluation of nonmetallic minerals in the districts of Central Lampung and East Lampung. Proceeding Explanation of the Results of Field Activities for Geological Resource Center pp. 1-5.

Tatangindatu, F., Kalesaran, O. and Rompas, R. 2013. Study of physical and chemical parameters of water in fish culture area in lake Tondano, Paleloan Village, Minahasa Regency. Jurnal Budidaya Perairan 1(2): 8-19 (in Indonesian).

Tomas, R.C. 1997. Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. Academic Press. New York. 858 pp.

Triswiyana, I., Permatasari, A. and Kurniawan, A. 2019. Utilization of ex tin mine lake for aquaculture: case study of Muntok Sub District, West Bangka Regency. Samakia: Jurnal Ilmu Perikanan 10(2): (1-4) (in Indonesian).

Yamaji, I. 1976. Illustration of the Marine Plankton of Japan. Hoikusha Publ.Osaka, Japan.

Yulianto, H., Hartoko, A., Anggoro, S., Hasani, Q., Mulyasih, D. and Delis, P.C. 2017b. Suitability analysis of Lampung Bay waters for grouper Epinephelus sp. farming activities. Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia 16(2): 234–243.








How to Cite

Hasani, Q., Pratiwi, N. T. M., Wardiatno, Y., Effendi, H., Yulianto, H., Yusuf, M. W., Caesario, R., & Farlina, F. (2021). Assessment of water quality of the ex-sand mining sites in Pasir Sakti District East Lampung for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management, 8(4), 3007–3014.



Research Article