Impact of sand mining on the changes of morphological and physical dynamics in Sa’dang River, Pinrang District, Indonesia


  • A Arsyad Universitas Hasanuddin
  • Didi Rukmana Hasanuddin University
  • Darmawan Salman Hasanuddin University
  • Ilham Alimuddin Department of Geology, Hasanuddin University



production volume, replenishment rate, river sand, Sa’dang River, sand mining


The research aimed to investigate the morphological changes and physical dynamics conditions of the Sa’dang River associated with river sand mining activities. The research is expected to benefit the efforts of the management of sand mining in this area and enrich knowledge about the issues of river sand mining. The study was conducted in Sa’dang River sand mining area, which includes villages of Pincara, Massewwae and Mangki of Pinrang District in South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. A field survey was conducted in October to December 2019 to see the condition of the river along with the mining activities that were taking place. Field data analysis was combined with google earth imagery data for 2006, 2014, 2017 and 2019 using ArcGIS 10.5 software to see changes in river morphology, formation and extent of point bar and channel bar, as well as changes in the area of river water bodies and non-water river bodies. The results showed that the changes in morphology and physical dynamics conditions of the Sa’dang River showed their own pattern. If sediment deposits forming point bars or channel bars were reduced, the area of river water bodies tended to increase. Or in other words, the width of the river is inversely proportional to the increase in the area of the river water body if the area of sediment deposits that form the point bar and channel bar tends to decrease.

Author Biographies

A Arsyad, Universitas Hasanuddin

Teknik Kebumian dan Lingkungan

Didi Rukmana, Hasanuddin University

Department of Agricultural Socio-Economic

Darmawan Salman, Hasanuddin University

Department of  Agricultural Socio-Economic


Ashraf, M.A., Maah, M.J., Yusoff, I., Wajid, A. and Mahmood, K. 2011. Sand mining effects, causes and concerns: a case study from Bestari Jaya, Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. Scientific Research and Essays 6(6): 1216-1231.

Bravard, J.P., Goichot, M. and Gaillot, S. 2013. Geography of sand and gravel mining in the lower Mekong River. EchoGeo 26, doi: 10.4000/echogeo.13659.

Buffington, J.M., Church, M., Biron, P.M. and Roy, A.G. 2012. Changes in Channel Morphology Over Human Time. Scales Gravel-bed Rivers: Processes, Tools, Environments, First Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Published 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Central office of Pompengan-Jeneberang river region in South Sulawesi (COPJRRSS), 2015. Physical of Sadang river characteristics.

Chaiwongsaen, N., Nimnate, P. and Choowong, M. 2019. Morphological Changes of the Lower Ping and Chao Phraya Rivers, North and Central Thailand: Flood and Coastal Equilibrium Analyses. Open Geosciences 11: 152-171. 10.1515/geo-2019-0013.

Cheng, Y., He, H., Cheng, N. and He, W. 2015. The effects of climate and anthropogenic activity on hydrologic features in Yanhe River. Advances in Meteorology Volume 2016 |Article ID 5297158| doi: 10.1155/2016/5297158.

Demetriades, N. 2007. Investigational Report An Inventory Of Sand Mining Operations: Thukela to Mtamvuna. Coast Watch, Wessa KSN, Ethekwini Municipality.

Gholap, V.S. 2016. Impacts of sand dredging and silt extraction activity on river and its characteristic; A Review. International Journal of Engineering Sciences and Research Technology 5(3):1-4, doi: 10.5281/zenodo.469.

Gunaratne, L.H.P. 2010. Can River Sand Mining Be Sustainable? Policy Options from Sri Lanka. Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia. Retrieved from Economics and Environment Program for Southeast Asia.

Hackney, C.R., Darby, S.E., Parsons, D.R., Leyland, J., Best, J.L., Aalto, R., Nicholas, A.P. and Houseago, R.C. 2020. River bank instability from unsustainable sand mining in the lower Mekong River. Nature Sustainability 3: 217–225, doi: 10.1038/s41893-019-0455-3.

Ibisate, A., Ollero, A. and Diaz, E. 2011. Influence of catchment processes on fluvial morphology and river habitats. Limnetica 30 (2): 169-182.

Islam, M.K., Alkibriya, M. and Dustegir, M.M. 2018. Impact analysis of Sand dredging from alluvial tidal river. E3S Web of Conferences 40, 03036 River Flow, doi: 10.1051/e3sconf/20184003036.

Kamboj, V., Kamboj, N. and Sharma, S. 2018. Environmental impact of river bed mining- a review. International Journal of Scientific Research and Reviews 7(1): 504–520.

Koehnken, L., Rintoul, M.S., Goichot, M., Tickner, D., Loftus, A.C. and Acreman, M.C. 2020. Impacts of riverine sand mining on freshwater ecosystems: A review of the scientific evidence and guidance for future research. River Research and Applications 36(3): 362-370.

Kondolf, G.M, 1997. Hungry water: effects of dams and gravel mining on river channels. Environmental Management 21(4): 533-51, doi: 10.1007/s002679900048.

Kori, E. and Mathada, H. 2012. An assessment of environmental impacts of sand and gravel mining in Nzhelele Valley, Limpopo Province, South Africa. 3rd International Conference on Biology, Environment and Chemistry IPCBEE vol.46 (2012) © (2012) IACSIT Press, Singapore, doi: 10.7763/IPCBEE. 2012. V46. 29.

Luo, X.L., Xeng, E.Y., Ji, R.Y. and Wang, C.P. 2007. Effects of in-channel sand excavation on the hydrology of the Pearl River Delta, China. Journal of Hydrology 343(3): 230-239, doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2007.06.019.

Malawani, M.N., Handayani, T., Bariq, J.M. and Lukafiardi, R. 2019. Morphological changes due to anthropogenis interferences in Gendol River Valley, Merapi Volcano. Forum Geografi 33(2), doi: 10.23917/forgeo.v33i2.8766, (in Indonesian).

Melton, B. 2009. In-stream gravel mining impacts and environmental degradation feedback associated with gravel mining on the Rio Tigre of the OSA Peninsula. Costa Rica, and the proposed ADI Jimenez Gravel Mining Concession.

Mitra, M. and Singh, S. 2015. GIS in demarcation, management and planning of sand mining zone. International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Research 3(10): October 2015. Paper ID: IJSER15542

Monica, U. and Murthy, A. 2014. Sand mining curbing the evil to the environment through sustainable substitution and legislative action. OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development 7(3): 17-26.

Morisawa, M. 1968. Streams: Their Dynamics and Morphology. London: McGraw Hill Book Company.

Office of Industry, Trade, Energy, and Mineral Resources (OITEMR) Pinrang Regency, (2015). List of Mining Management Business Names that Do Not Have a Mining Business License (IUP) for 2015.

Rinaldi, M., Wyzga, B. and Surian, N. 2005. Sediment mining in alluvial channels: physical effects and management perspectives. River Research and Applications 21: 805-828, doi: 10.1002/rra.884.

Santo, E. and Sánchez, L. 2002. GIS applied to determine environmental impact indicators made by sand mining in a floodplain in southeastern Brazil. Environmental Geology 41: 628–637, doi: 10.1007/s002540100441.

Savior, M.N. 2012. Environmental Impact Of Soil And Sand Mining: A Review. International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology 1(3): 125–134.

Schandl, H., Fischer-Kowalski, M., West, J., Giljum, S., Dittrich, M., Eisenmenger, N., ... Fishman, T. 2016. Global Material Flows and Resource Productivity. Assessment Report for the UNEP International resource panel. Paris, UNEP.

Sheela, R.A., Aruna, S., Naveen, A. and Kirubakaran, M. 2018. Remote Sensing Based Analysis on River Dynamics and Fluvial Process, A Case Study of Udupi District, Karnataka. Interbational Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology 7 (Special Issues 5 April 2018: 72-78.

Sosnowska, A. 2020. Dynamics of mid-channel bars in the Middle Vistula River in response to ferry crossing abutment construction, Open Geosciences 12(1), 290-298, doi: 10.1515/geo-2020-0049.

Technical Implementing Unit of Service Sa’dang Watershed (TIU-SSW). 2015. Physical Characteristics of Sa’dang River.

Peng, G., Geissen, V., Ritsema, C., Mu, X. and Wang, F. 2013. Impact of climate change and anthropogenic activities on stream flow and sediment discharge in the Wei River basin, China. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 17, doi: 10.5194/hess-17-961-2013.

Prasad, M., Reddy, M. and Sunitha, V. 2016. Mapping of river sand mining zones using remote sensing and GIS : a case study in parts of Pagani and Pennar river beds, YSR District Andhra Pradesh. Asian Academic Research Journal of Multidisciplinary 3. 45-55.

Wang, B. and Xu, Y.J. 2017. Dynamics of 30 large channel bars in the Lower Mississippi River in response to river engineering from 1985 to 2015. Geomorphology 300(2018): 31-44, doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2017.09.041.

Wang, Z., Ding, J. and Yang, G. 2012. Risk analysis of slope instability of leases under river sand mining conditions. Water Science and Engineering Journal 5 (3): 340–349, doi:10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2012.03.009.

Yuill, B.T., Gaweesh, A., Allison, M.A. and Meselhe, E.A. 2015. Morphodynamic evolution of lower Mississippi River channel bar after sand mining. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. Published online 5 November 2015 in Wiley Online Library., doi: 10.1002/esp.3846.

Zhang, X.F., Yan, H.C., Yue, Y. and Xu, Q.X. 2019. Quantifiying natural and anthropogenic impacts on runoff and sediment load: An investigation on the middle and lower reaches of the Jinsha river basin. Journal of Hydrology. Volume 25, October 2019, 100617, doi: 10.1016/j.ejrh.2019.100617.








How to Cite

Arsyad, A., Rukmana, D., Salman, D., & Alimuddin, I. (2020). Impact of sand mining on the changes of morphological and physical dynamics in Sa’dang River, Pinrang District, Indonesia. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management, 8(1), 2451–2460.



Research Article