Analysis of factors contributing to the dispersal of Casuarina junghuhniana Miq. in a volcanic mountain
Casuarina junghuhniana or mountain ru, she oak or cemara is a species from Indonesia which grows in the highland area at an altitude between 2000 - 3000 m above sea level (asl). One of the highland area in Eastern Java (Jawa Timur) of Indonesia is Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park (TNBTS). The study site was on the Tengger Sea of Sands, Eastern Java, Indonesia where it is affected by volcanic activity. This tree, from some references, has not been well studied yet although it has been reported as a tree native to Indonesia. The lack of the study poses problems when there is a program related to planting the tree on a certain location in TNBTS for rehabilitation purposes. This study attempted to construct a Structural Equation Model that mapped some factors observed in the study site related to C. junghuhniana population. Explored factors for their relationship with each other included the number of male and female individuals, growth-related indicators, and environmental factors consisting of altitude and the tree population. Formative factors which consist of parameters related to growth, environmental factors and factor associated with the diffusion of new individuals, may contribute to population growth while population growth was the opposite. The individual growth might not significantly contribute to the population of C. junghuhniana; instead, the population growth was affected by the tree individuals. Generative reproduction contributed the least to the dispersal as it may rely more on vegetative reproduction by adventitious shoots from roots.
Bachri, S., Stötter, J., Monreal, M. and Sartohadi, J. 2015. The calamity of eruptions, or an eruption of benefits? Mt. Bromo human–volcano system a case study of an open-risk perception. Natural Hazards and Earth System Science 15: 277–290. https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-15-277-2015
Braun-Blanquet, J. 1932. Plant Sociology : The Study of Plant Communities. 1st ed. McGraw-Hill book company, USA.
Bullock, J.M. and Clarke, R.T. 2000. Long distance seed dispersal by wind: measuring and modelling the tail of the curve. Oecologia 124: 506–521.
Buvaneswaran, C., Sivakumar, V., Prasanth, R.S. and Kumar, N.K. 2014. Transfer of Tree Cultivation Technologies to Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) of Tamil Nadu and Puducherry. Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Coimbatore.
Darwin, C. 1876. The Effects of Cross and Self Fertilization In The Vegetable Kingdom. Cambridge University Press, London.
Douglas, D.A. 1981. The balance between vegetative and sexual reproduction of Mimulus primuloides (Scrophulariaceae) at different altitudes in California. Journal of Ecology 69: 295. https://doi.org/10.2307/2259832
ESRI. 2000. Using ArcMap. Environmental System Research Institute, New York, USA.
Google Maps. 2017. Bromo [WWW Document]. URL maps.google.com
Hair, J.F. (Ed.), 2014. A primer on partial least squares structural equations modeling (PLS-SEM). SAGE, Los Angeles.
Hakim, L. and Miyakawa, H. 2013. Plant trees species for restoration program in Ranupani, Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park Indonesia. Biodiversity Journal 4: 387–394.
Hakim, L. and Soemarno, M. 2017. Biodiversity conservation, community development and geotourism development in Bromo-Tengger-Semeru-Arjuno Biosphere Reserve, East Java. Geo Journal of Tourism and Geosites 20: 220–230.
Jayaraj, R.S.C. 2010. Casuarina junghuhniana (Casuarinaceae) in India. Australian Journal of Botany 58: 149. https://doi.org/10.1071/BT09210
Kliman, R., Sheehy, B. and Schultz, J. 2008. Genetic Drift and Effective Population Size. Nat. Educ. 1.
Lipe, R., Parker, R., Mottram, A. and Klein, O. 2017. GPSBabel. gpsbabel.org, Boston, MA.
National Research Council, 1984. Casuarinas Nitrogen-Fixing Trees for Adverse Sites. National Academy Press.
Pinyopusarerk, K. and Boland, D.J. 1995. Casuarina junghuhniana - a Highly Adaptable Tropical Casuarina [WWW Document]. URL http://factnet.winrock.org/fnrm/factnet/factpub/FACTSH/C_jung.html (accessed 5.10.16).
Plant Use English contributors. 2016. Casuarina junghuhniana, in: Plant Resources of South-East Asia. PlantUse English.
QGIS Development Team. 2014. QGIS 2.2 Geographic Information User Guide. Open Source Geospatial Foundation Project.
R Core Team. 2014. A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
Rencana Pengelolaan Taman Nasional Bromo Tengger Semeru 1995 - 2020 (No. II), 1995. Taman Nasional Bromo Tengger Semeru, Malang.
Renner, S.S. 2014. The relative and absolute frequencies of angiosperm sexual systems: Dioecy, monoecy, gynodioecy, and an updated online database. American Journal of Botany 101: 1588–1596. https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.1400196
Sanchez, G. 2013. PLS path modeling with R. Berkeley Trowchez Ed.
Sanchez, G. and Sanchez, M.G. 2012. Package ‘plsdepot.’ Partial Least Sq. PLS Data Anal. Methods V 01 17.
Schollmeyer, M. 2014. GPS Essentials Manual. mictacle.com, Seattle, WA.
Seidler, T.G. and Plotkin, J.B. 2006. Seed dispersal and spatial pattern in tropical trees. PLoS Biology 4: e344. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0040344
Sengloung, R., Nangwongprom, K., Kaveeta, L., Bhumibhamon, S. and Pipatwatthanakul, D. 2003. Provenance Variation on Growth Performance and Some Floral Biology of Casuarina junghuhniana Miq., in: XII World Forestry Congress. Presented at the XII World Forestry Congress, Canada.
TCX Converter USER MANUAL, 2014. tcxconverter.com.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.