The potential of wild vegetation species of Eleusine indica L., and Sonchus arvensis L. for phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil


  • Amir Hamzah Tribhuwana Tunggadewi University
  • Ricky Indri Hapsari Tribhuwana Tunggadewi University
  • Rossyda Priyadarshini 2) University of Pembangunan Nasional “Veteran” Jawa Timur



cadmium, E. indica, phytoremediation, S. arvensis


Phytoremediation has been intensively studied due its costs effectiveness and environmentally sound. Studies of heavy metal pollution phytoremediation has been done in develop countries, but still limited in Indonesia. This study aims to explore the potential of wild plant species Eleusine indica L. and Sonchus arvensis L. as an agent of phytoremediation on Cd-contaminated soil. This study was done descriptively in Pujon, Malang, Indonesia, to test the ability of two species of wild plants E. indica and S. arvensis in absorbing Cd. Along this research, plant growth and the concentration of Cd in roots, stems and leaves, was monitored. Plant growth was measured every week for three months. The plant roots, stems, and leaves collected separately, then analyzed its Cd levels. The results showed that both of two species of wild plants grew well on soil contaminated Cd. Plant roots can accumulate higher Cd than the stem part. In addition, E indica has the ability to accumulate Cd higher than S. arvensis, i.e. 57.11% and 35.84%, respectively

Author Biographies

Amir Hamzah, Tribhuwana Tunggadewi University

Lecturer in Agriculture

Ricky Indri Hapsari, Tribhuwana Tunggadewi University


Rossyda Priyadarshini, 2) University of Pembangunan Nasional “Veteran” Jawa Timur



Abdurachman, A. 2003. Indonesian Agricultural Land Degradation. Agricultural Research and Development Center. http// (in Indonesian)

Alberto, A.M.P. and Sigua, G.C. 2013. Phytoremediation : A green technology to remove environmental pollutants. American Journal of Climate Change 2:71- 86.

Alloway, B.J. 1995. Heavy Metal in Soils. 2nd Edition. New York: Blackie Academic and Professional-Chapman and Hall.

AOAC. 1990. AOAC official methods of analysis. 15th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, Virginia. Pp. 84–85

Aremu, M.O., Abike, F.O. and Oyebamiji, T.E. 2013. Phytoextraction potential of Vetiveria zizanioides on heavy metals. European Scientific Journal 9 : 1857-1881.

Bhaduri, A.M. and Fulekar, M.H. 2012. Assessment of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the phytoremediation potential of Ipomoea aquatica on cadmium uptake. Biotech 2 (3): 193-198.

Bogdanovic, D., Ubavic, M. and Cuvardic, M. 1999. Effect of phosphorus fertilization on Zn and Cd contents in soil and corn plants. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 54 (1): 49-56.

Cakmak, I., Sari, N., Marschner, H., Ekiz, H. and Kalayci, M. 1996. Phytosiderophore release in bread and durum wheat genotypes differing in zinc efficiency. Plant and Soil 180: 183-189.

Gabbrielli, R., Mattioni, C. and Vergnano, O. 1991, Accumulation mechanism and heavy metal tolerance of a nickel hyperaccumulator. Journal of Plant Nutrition 14: 1067-1080.

Garba, S.T., Santuraki, A.H. and Barminas, J.T. 2011. EDTA Assisted uptake, accumulation and translocation of the metals: Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn by Eleusine indica L. dearth from contaminated soil. Journal of American Science 7(11): 151-159.

Gomes, M.P., Marques, T.C.L.L.S.M., Carneiro, M.M.L.C. and Soares, Â.M. 2012. Anatomical characteristics and nutrient uptake and distribution associated with the Cd-phytoremediation capacity of Eucalyptus camaldulenses Dehnh. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 12 (3): 481-495.

Gomes, P.C., Fontes, M.P.F., da Silva, A.G., Mendonca, S. and Netto, A.R.. 2001. Selectivity sequences and competitive adsorption of heavy metals by Brazilian Soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal 65:1115-6842

Gothberg, A., Greger, M., Holm, K., and Bengtsson, B. 2004. Heavy metals in the environment spinach. Journal of Environmental Quality 33:1247-1255.

Grant, C.A. and Sheppard, S.C. 2008. Fertilizer impacts on cadmium availability in agricultural soils and crops. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 4 (2): 2010-228.

Grant, C.A. 2011. Influence of phosphate fertilizer on cadmium in agricultural soils and crops. Pedologist/Pedorojisuto (Tokyo) 54:143-155.

Hamzah, A., Kusuma, Z., Utomo, W.H. and Guritno, B. 2012. Siam weed (Chromolaena odorata L.) for phytoremediation of artisanal gold mine tailings. Journal Tropical of Agriculture 50 (1-2): 88-91.

Hamzah, A., Hapsari, R.I. and Winubroto, E.I. 2016. Phytoremediation of Cadmium-contaminated agricultural land using indigenous plants. International Journal of Environmental & Agriculture Research 2 (1) : 8-14.

Hinchman, R.R., Negri, M.C. and Gatliff, E.G. 1996. Phytoremediation: Using Green Plants to Clean Up Contaminated Soil, Groundwater and Wastewater. In Proceedings, International Topical Meeting on Nuclear and Hazardous Waste Management, Spectrum 96. Seattle. American Nuclear Society.

Lahuddin. 2007. Aspects of micro elements in soil fertility. Faculty of Agriculture, University of North Sumatra, Medan (in Indonesian).

Lux, A.A., Sottniková, A., Opatrná, J. and Greger, M. 2004. Differences in structure of adventitious roots in Salix clones with contrasting characteristics of cadmium accumulation and sensitivity. Physiologia Plantarum 120: 537-545.

Macek, T., Mackova, M. and Kas, J. 2000. Exploitation of plants for the removal of organic environmental remediation. Biotechnology Advances 18: 23-34.

Marchial, L., Leita, L., Martin, M., Peressotti, A. and Zerbi, G. 1996. Physiological responses of two soybeans cultivars to cadmium. Journal of Environmental Quality 25: 562–566.

McMahon, G., Subdibjo, E.R., Aden, J., Bouzaher, A., Dore, G. and Kunanayagam, R. 2000. Mining and the environment in Indonesia: Long-term trends and repercussions of the Asian economic crisis. EASES Discussion Paper Series, 21438 November 2000. The Environment and Social Development Unit (EASES), East Asia and Pacific Region of the World Bank.

Moosavi, S.G. and Mohamd, J.S. 2013. Phytoremediation: A review. Journal Advance in Agriculture and Biology 1 (1): 5 - 11.

Mulligan, C., Yong, R. and Gibbs, B. 2001. Remediation technologies for metal contaminated soils and groundwater: An evaluation. Engineering Geology 60: 193-207.

Nopriani, L.S. 2011. Quick test technique to identify soil heavy metals contamination in apple land in Batu. Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University (in Indonesian)

Oomen, R.J.F.J., Wu, J., Lelièvre, F., Blanchet, S., Richaud, P. and Barbier-Brygoo, H. 2009. Functional characterization of NRAMP3 and NRAMP4 from the metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. New Phytologist 181: 637–650.

Patra, M. and Sharma, A. 2000. Mercury toxicity in plants. Botanical Review 66: 379-422.

Sabeen, M., Qaisar, M., Muhammad, I., Iftikhar, F., Afsar, K., Farid, U., Jamshaid, H., Yousaf, H. and Sobia, T. 2013. Cadmium phytoremediation by Arundo donax L. from Contaminated Soil and Water. BioMed Research International,Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 324830, 9 pages.

Salt, D.E., Smith, R.D. and Raskin, I. 1998. Phytoremediation. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 49 : 643-668.

Schat, H., Llugany, M. and Bernhard, K. 1999. Metal specific patterns of tolerance, uptake and transport of heavy metals in hyperaccumulating and non-hyperaccumulating metallophytes. In: N. Terry, G. Barnuelos (eds). Phytoremediation of contaminated soils and waters. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, F. L., USA. Pp 171-188.

Sharma, B.M. 1984. Ecophysiological Studies of Eleusine indica L.(L.) and Sporobolus pyramidalis P. Beauv. at Ibadan, Nigeria. Journal of Range Management 37(3) : 275-276

Speir, T.W., Van Schaik, A.P., Percival, H.J., Close, M.E. and Pang, L. 2003. Heavy metals in soil, plants and groundwater following high-rate sewage sludge application to land. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 150: 349-358.

Surat, W., Kruatrachue, M., Pokethitiyook, P., Tanhan, P. and Samranwanich, T. 2008. Potential of Sonchus Arvensis for the phytoremediation of lead-contaminated soil. International Journal of Phytoremediation 10 (4): 325-342.

Tian, S.K., Lu, L.L., Yang, X.E., Labavitch, J.M., Huang, Y.Y. and Brown, P. 2009. Stem and leaf sequestration of zinc at the cellular level in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii. New Phytologist 182: 116–126.

Tresnawati, A., Kusdianti, R. and Solihat R. 2014. Chlorophyll content and biomass of plant potato (Solanum tuberosum L) in accumulates of heavy metal cd soil. Formica Online 1 (1): 24-35 (in Indonesian)

Van Kauwenbergh, S.J. 2001. Cadmium in phosphate rock and fertilizers. Paper presented at The Fertilizer Institute 2001 World Fertilizer Conference, Chicago, Illinois. p. 25.

Wang, Y., Huang, J. and Gao, Y. 2012. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization alters sub cellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium in Medicago sativa L. and resists cadmium toxicity. PlosOne 7 (11): 1-7.

Waseem. A., Jahanzaib, A., Farhat. I., Ashif. S., Zahid. M. and Ghulam, M. 2014. Pollution status of Pakistan: a retrospective review on heavy metal contamination of water, soil, and vegetables. BioMed Research International Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 813206, 29 pages.

Widaningrum, Miskiyah dan Suismono. 2007. Danger of heavy metal contamination in vegetables and alternative prevention of pollution. Agricultural Postharvest Technology Bulletin 3: 15-25 (in Indonesian)








How to Cite

Hamzah, A., Hapsari, R. I., & Priyadarshini, R. (2017). The potential of wild vegetation species of Eleusine indica L., and Sonchus arvensis L. for phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management, 4(3), 797–805.



Research Article