Analysis of the availability and water requirements of dryland farming and the water needs of residents in Hiri Island, Ternate City, North Maluku


  • Ramli Hadun Department of Forestry Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khairun University, Ternate, North Maluku, Indonesia
  • Buhari Umasugi Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khairun University, Ternate, North Maluku, Indonesia
  • Suratman Sudjud Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Khairun University, Ternate, North Maluku, Indonesia
  • Amiruddin Teapon Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khairun University, Ternate, North Maluku, Indonesia



dryland farming, water availability, water needs of residents, water requirements


Dryland farming is one of the main agricultural models farmers use on the islands of North Maluku, so it is very dependent on the availability of rainwater. The water for crops is available in the rainy season, and drought is experienced in the dry season, one of which occurs on Hiri Island. This study aimed to analyze the availability and water needs of plants based on land characteristics and use to provide information for the development of dryland farming on Hiri Island. The method for calculating water availability used the land water balance approach using rainfall data for the last ten years, while the analysis of plant water needs was based on the soil moisture content and plant coefficient approach. The results of the analysis of water availability based on the land water balance of 2,236.4 mm with an average monthly rainfall of 186.4 mm and according to the type of land use on Hiri Island show that the highest available water in agroforestry was 40.92% in the secondary forest was 39.04%, in coconut, plantations was 35.72%, in fields was 35.18%, and undergrowth was 34.67%. Plant cultivation businesses must meet the water needs of plants to increase production. The people on Hiri Island need 29,340 L of water to fulfill their daily needs.


Achmad, B., Sanudin, B., Siarudin, M., Widiyanto, A., Diniyati, D., Sudomo, A., Hani, A., Fauziyah, E., Suhaendah, E., Widyaningsih, T. S., Handayani, W., Maharani, D., Suhartono, D., Palmolina, M., Swestiani, D., Budi Santoso Sulistiadi, H., Winara, A., Nur, Y. H., Diana, M., … Ruswandi, A. 2022. Traditional subsistence farming of smallholder agroforestry systems in Indonesia: A review. Sustainability (Switzerland) 14(14).

Afriyanda, R., Mulki, G.Z. and Fitriani, M.I. 2018. Analysis of domestic clean water needs in Penjajap Village, Pemangkat District, Sambas Regency. Jurnal PWK, Laut, Sipil, Tambang 6(2):1-11 (in Indonesian).

Allen, R.G., Pereira, L.S., Raes, D. and Smith, M. 1998. Crop evapotranspiration guidelines for computing crop water requirements. In FAO Irrigation & drainage Paper 56. FAO of the United Nations, Roma.

Amir, B.I.T. 2023. Risk analysis of dry land rice production on the impact of climate change and weather. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Agriculture (ICA 2022). Advances in Biological Sciences Research 33;126-138.

Antwi-Agyei, P. and Stringer, L.C. 2021. Improving the effectiveness of agricultural extension services in supporting farmers to adapt to climate change: Insights from northeastern Ghana. Climate Risk Management 32(May 2020):100304.

Appels, W.M., Bogaart, P.W. and van der Zee, S.E.A.T.M. 2016. Surface runoff in flat terrain: How field topography and runoff generating processes control hydrological connectivity. Journal of Hydrology 534:493-504.

Ayanlade, A. 2023. Safe drinking water supply under extreme climate events: evidence from four urban sprawl communities. Climate and Development 15(3):1-16.

Ayu, I.W., Soemarno, S., Iskandar, S., Gunawan, G. and Oklima, A.M. 2020. Local wisdom of farming by small farmers in rainfed dryland of Pelat Village. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research 465:372-376.

BPS, K.T. 2023. Hiri Island District in 2023 Figures. Badan Pusat Statisitik Kota Ternate (in Indonesian).

Dietz, K.J., Zörb, C. and Geilfus, C.M. 2021. Drought and crop yield. Plant Biology 23(6):881-893.

Dotaniya, M.L., Meena, V.D., Saha, J.K., Dotaniya, C.K., Mahmoud, A.E.D., Meena, B.L., Meena, M.D., Sanwal, R.C., Meena, R.S., Doutaniya, R.K., Solanki, P., Lata, M. and Rai, P.K. 2023. Reuse of poor-quality water for sustainable crop production in the changing scenario of climate. In Environment, Development and Sustainability (Vol. 25, Issue 8). Springer.

Duguma, B. and Janssens, G.P.J. 2021. Assessment of livestock feed resources and coping strategies with dry season feed scarcity in mixed crop-livestock farming systems around the Gilgel Gibe catchment, southwest Ethiopia. Sustainability (Switzerland) 13(19).

Filho, W.L., Krishnapillai, M., Sidsaph, H., Nagy, G.J., Luetz, J.M., Dyer, J., Ha'Apio, M.O., Havea, P.H., Raj, K., Singh, P., Rogers, T., Li, C., Boodhan, M.K., Wolf, F., Ayal, D.Y. and Azadi, H. 2021. Climate change adaptation on small island states: An assessment of limits and constraints. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 9(6).

Hajek, O.L. and Knapp, A.K. 2022. Shifting seasonal patterns of water availability: ecosystem responses to an unappreciated dimension of climate change. New Phytologist 233(1):119-125.

Hatta, M., Sulakhudin, Burhansyah, R., Kifli, G.C., Dewi, D.O., Kilmanun, J.C., Permana, D., Supriadi, K., Warman, R., Azis, H., Santari, P.T. and Widiastuti, D.P. 2023. Food self-sufficiency: Managing the newly-opened tidal paddy fields for rice farming in Indonesia (A case study in West Kalimantan, Indonesia). Heliyon 9(3):e13839.

Heryani, N. 2022. Development of rainwater harvesting to fullfill domestic purposes in Indonesia. Jurnal Sumberdaya Lahan 15(2):117-129 (in Indonesian).

Ihuoma, S.O. and Madramootoo, C.A. 2017. Recent advances in crop water stress detection. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 14:267-275.

Khan, W.A., Rahman, J.U., Mohammed, M., Alhussain, Z.A. and Elbashir, M.K. 2021. Topological sustainability of crop water requirements and irrigation scheduling of some main crops based on the Penman-Monteith method. Journal of Chemistry 2021.

Lasut, I. 2023. Water Conservation Through Reservoirs and Infiltration Wells in Hiri Island District. Potret Malut, 30-31. (in Indonesian)

Lestari, N., Ambarita, A., Hafel, R.G. and Muharto. 2023. Android-based e-tourism application as a guide and media for promoting tourism objects in North Maluku. Jurnal Ilmiah ILKOMINFO-Ilmu Komputer & Informatika 6(1):11-20 (in Indonesian).

Mishra, R.K. 2023. Fresh water availability and it's global challenge. Journal of Marine Science and Research 2(1):1-3.

Mosquera, G. 2020. Disentangling water transport and tracer mixing mechanisms in mountainous environments influenced by volcanic features. PhD thesis, Universidad de Cuenca, Equador,

Mulyono, P.F. and Putro, H. 2019. Analysis of water security in Ternate City, North Maluku Province. Jurnal Teknik Pengairan 10(2):120-125 (in Indonesian).

Omer, A., Elagib, N.A., Zhuguo, M., Saleem, F. and Mohammed, A. 2020. Water scarcity in the Yellow River Basin under future climate change and human activities. Science of The Total Environment 749:141446.

Osboerne, N. and Granth-Smith, D. 2021. In-depth interviewing. In Methods in Urban Analysis (pp. 1-21).

Paas, W., Coopmans, I., Severini, S., van Ittersum, M.K., Meuwissen, M.P.M. and Reidsma, P. 2021. Participatory assessment of sustainability and resilience of three specialized farming systems. Ecology and Society 26(2).

Praptiwi, R.A., Maharja, C., Fortnam, M., Chaigneau, T., Evans, L., Garniati, L. and Sugardjito, J. 2021. Tourism-based alternative livelihoods for small island communities transitioning towards a blue economy. Sustainability (Switzerland) 13(12):1-11.

Prijono, S. 2008. Soil Physical Analysis Techniques. Cakrawala Indonesia Press (in Indonesian).

Pujiono, E., Raharjo, S.A.S., Njurumana, G.N., Prasetyo, B. and Rianawati, H. 2021. Sustainability status of agroforestry systems in Timor Island, Indonesia. E3S Web of Conferences 305:1-10.

Raes, D., Steduto, P., Hsiao, T.C. and Fereres, E., 2009. AquaCrop-The FAO crop model to simulate yield response to water: II. Main algorithms and software description. Agronomy Journal 101: 438e447.

Rahmat, Y. 2023.. Addressing clean water, Ternate City Government will build a reservoir on Hiri Island. Portal Berita Info Publik. (in Indonesian).

Rosero, A., Granda, L., Berdugo-Cely, J.A., Samajova, O., Samaj, J. and Cerkal, R. 2020. A dual strategy of breeding for drought tolerance and introducing drought-tolerant, underutilized crops into production systems to enhance their resilience to water deficiency. Plants 9(10):1-21.

Saidani, A.M., Kuper, M., Hamamouche, F.M. and Benmihoub, A. 2022. Reinventing the wheel: adapting a traditional circular irrigation system to 'modern' agricultural extension areas in the Algerian Sahara. New Medit 2022(5):35-53.

Seleiman, M.F., Al-Suhaibani, N., Ali, N., Akmal, M., Alotaibi, M., Refay, Y., Dindaroglu, T., Abdul-Wajid, H.H. and Battaglia, M.L. 2021. Drought stress impacts on plants and different approaches to alleviate its adverse effects. Plants 10(2):1-25.

Silva, J.A. 2023. Water supply and wastewater treatment and reuse in future cities: A systematic literature review. Water (Switzerland) 15(17).

Solangi, G.S., Shah, S.A., Alharbi, R.S., Panhwar, S., Keerio, H.A., Kim, T.W., Memon, J.A. and Bughio, A.D. 2022. Investigation of irrigation water requirements for major crops using CROPWAT model based on climate data. Water (Switzerland) 14(16).

Steenhuis, T., van der Molen, W.H. and Hall, R. 1986. The Thornthwaite-Mather prosedure as a simple engineering method to predict recharge. Journal of Hydrology 84:221-229.

Suparman, Bahtiar, Nurhasanah, and Das, S.S. 2018. Diversity and mapping clove varieties (Syzygium aromaticum) on Hiri Island, in Ternate Municipality. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science 11(8):11-16.

Sutcliffe, C., Knox, J. and Hess, T. 2021. Managing irrigation under pressure: How supply chain demands and environmental objectives drive imbalance in agricultural resilience to water shortages. Agricultural Water Management 243(September 2020):106484.

Thazin, K. 2019. Irrigation water requirements of different crops by using Cropwat 8 software in Taungdwingyi township. Iconic Research and Engineering Journals 3(4):191-197.

Umasugi, B., Prijono, S., Soemarno, and Ariffin. 2021a. Improvement of soil moisture storage in clove plantation land using biopore technology and organic material litters. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 8(2): 2601-2610.

Umasugi, B., Prijono, S., Soemarno, and Ariffin. 2021b. Soil moisture analysis and rainwater management at clove plantation to meet the water requirement of clove plants during dry season. International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology 11(6):2197-2203.

Umasugi, B., Teapon, A. and Sudjud, S. 2022. Food in the garden, island farmer farming model: Analysis of land characteristics and income of farmers on Ternate Island. Agro Bali: Agricultural Journal 5(2):342-348 (in Indonesian).

Zollet, S. and Maharjan, K.L. 2021. Overcoming the barriers to entry of newcomer sustainable farmers: Insights from the emergence of organic clusters in Japan. Sustainability (Switzerland) 13(2):1-24.








How to Cite

Hadun, R., Umasugi, B., Sudjud, S., & Teapon, A. (2024). Analysis of the availability and water requirements of dryland farming and the water needs of residents in Hiri Island, Ternate City, North Maluku . Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management, 11(3), 6017–6023.



Research Article