Relationship between land degradation, biophysical and social factors in Lekso Watershed, East Java, Indonesia
Degraded lands are getting extensive worldwide. Even its existence has projected as a solution to fulfill agricultural land scarcity to meet the global demands of food and other agricultural goods, the rate of its extension should be inhibited. Some factors play important role. This research was aimed to find the explanation about how degraded land, biophysical and social factors are related. Research site was located in Lekso Watershed, East Java, Indonesia. Land degradation is assessed by evaluation of the critical land status based on procedure established by Indonesia’s Ministry of Forestry in form of Regulation No. P.32/Menhut-II, 2009.A series of field survey using secondary data obtained from GIS tool performed to collect data for quantify the critical land status. Social factors in this study were limited on people perception, awareness and participation. These data collected by in-depth interview to the respondents. Site of presented respondent selected with purposive sampling, while the respondents in each site selected with stratified random sampling method. The research revealed that surface cover demonstrated high correlation and regression toward critical and very critical land (average r = -0.9822, R2= 0.9648). However, slope steepness located in high altitude showed a contrary trend in which increasing slope steepness decreased the number of total moderate, critical and very critical lands. The functional area of this location as protected forest gave a good surface cover on the steep slope and resulted on small area of degraded land. On the other side, negative perception about cultivation on forest and steep slope resulted in positive correlations with the area of very critical land (r = 0.6710 for cultivated forest, and r = 0.9113 for cultivated steep slope). Moreover, people awareness about flood, landslide and drought gave a negative correlation (r = -0.6274) with critical and very critical area. At last, people participation on farmers’ organization could not be used to elucidate the range of degraded land as the participation in this context did not include the competency building about soil and water conservation values.
Andrade, O.B. and Overbec, G.E. 2015. Grassland degradation and restoration: a conceptual framework of stages and thresholds illustrated by southern Brazilian grasslands. Natureza & Concervacao 13: 95-104.
Asthana, D.K and Asthana, M. 2006. A Textbook of Environmental Studies. S. CHAND & Company Ltd. Ram Nagar, New Delhi, India. 51p.
Babaev, M.P., Gurbanov, E.A. and Ramazanova, F.M. 2015. Main types of soil degradation in the Kura-Aras lowland of Azerbaijan. Eurasian Soil Science 48: 445-456.
Briones, R.M. 2010. Adressing land degradation: benefit, cost and policy directions. Philippine Journal of Development 68: 41-79.
Chazdon, R.L., Brancalion, P.H.S., Laestadius, L., Bennett-Curry, A., Buckingham K., Kumar C., Moll-Rocek, J., Vieira I.C.G. and Wilson S.J. 2016. When is a forest a forest? Forest concepts and definitions in the era of forest and landscape restoration. Ambio 45(5): 538-550.
Cotler, H., Cram, S., Martinez-Trinidad, S. and Quintanar, E. 2013. Foest soil conserveation in central Mexico: An interdisciplinary assessment Catena 104(2013): 280-287.
Djaenudin, D., Oktaviani, R., Hartoyo, S., Dwiprabowo, H. 2016. Modelling of land allocation behavior in Indonesia. Procedia Environmental Science 33(2016): 78-86.
Gao, J. and Liu, Y. 2010. Determination of land degradation causes in Tongyu County, Northeast China via land cover change detection. International Journal of Eart Observation and Geoinformation 12: 9-16.
Gibbs, H.K. and Salmon, J.M. 2015. Mapping the world’s degraded lands. Applied Geography 57: 12-21.
Hammad, A.A. and Borresen, T. 2006. Socioeconomic factors affecting farmers’ perceptions of land degradation and stonewall terraces in Central Palestine. Environmental Management 37: 380-394.
Hassan, A., Noordin, T.A. and Sulaiman, S. 2010. The status on the level of environmental awareness in the concept tof sustainable development amongst secondary school students. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 2(2010): 1276-1280.
Inbar, M. and Zgaier, A. 2016. Physical and social aspects of land degradation in Mediterranean high land terraces: a geodivesity approach. Annales. Ser. his. socio. 26: 419-432.
Kumas Shir, P., Sankar Bhunia, G. and Maiti, R. 2015. Farmer’s perception of soil erosion and management strategies in South Bengal in India. European Journal of Geography 6 (2): 85-100.
Lestariningsih, I.D., Agustina, C., Widianto, and Sudarto. 2017. People perception about soil & water conservation and forest function change to agricultural ara in Lekso watershed, East Java. Proceeding of The 8th Nasional Seminar and 9th Congress of Indonesia’s Community on Soil & Water Conservation. 5-6 December 2016. Horison Hotel, Bandung, Indonesia. p. 1-14.
Moradkhah, V. and Alborzi, M. 2016. Relationship between emotional awareness and social creativity in primary school students. International Journal of Medical Research & Health Science 5(S): 222-228.
Okou, F.A.Y., Assogbadjo, A.E., Bachmann, Y. and Sinsin B. 2014. Ecological fators influencing physical soil degradation in the Atacora Mountain Chain in Benin, West Africa. Mountain Research and Development 34(2): 157-166.
Panagos, P., Standardi, G., Borrelli, P., Lugato, E., Montanarella, L. and Bosello, F. 2017. Cost of agricultural productivity loss due to soil erosion in the European Uniaon: from direct cost evaluation approaches to the use of macroeconomic models. Land Degrad. Dev. 2018: 1-14.
Parlak, M. and Ozaslan Parlak, A. 2010. Measurement of splash erosion in different cover crops. Turkish Journal of Field Crops 15(2): 169-173.
Shahriar, M.W., Mukand, S.B., Ashim, D.P. and Jayant, K.R. 2008. Degradation-environment-society spiral: A spatial auto-logistic model in Thailand. Natural Resources Forum 32: 209-304.
Sharda, V.N., Dogra, P. and Prakash, C. 2010. Assessment of production lossess due to water erosion in rainfed areas of India. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 65: 79-91.
Sitorus, S.RP. and Pravitasari, A.E. 2017. Land degradation and landslide in Indonesia. Sumatra Journal of Disaster, Geography and Geography Education 1(2): 61-71.
Smiraglia, D., Ceccarelli, T., Bajocco, S., Salvati, L. and Perini, L. 2016. Linking trajectories of land change, land degradation processes and ecosystem services. Environmental Research 147: 590-600.
Stavi, I. and Lal, R. 2015. Achieving zero net land degradation: challenges and opportunities. Journal of Arid Environments 112: 44-51.
Sutton, P.C., Anderson, S.J., Costanza, R. and Kubiszewski, I. 2016. The ecological economics of land degradation: Impacts on ecosystem service values. Ecological Economic 129(2016): 182-192.
Udayakumara, E.P.N., Shrestha, R.P., Samarakoon, L. and Schmidt-Vogt, D. 2010. People’s perception and socioeconomic determinants of soil erosion: A case study of Samanalawewa watershed, Srilanka. International Journal of Sediment Research 25(2010): 323:339.
UNCCD & Indonesia’s Ministry of Environment and Forestry. 2015. Indonesia – Land degradation neutrality national report. Republic of Indonesia.
Wang, L. and Shi, Z.H. 2015. Size selectivity of eroded sediment associated with soil texture on steep slopes. Soil Science Society of American Journal 79(3): 917-929.
Wang, Y. 2007. On the cognitive processes of human perception with emotions, motivations and attitudes. International Journal of Cognitive Informatics and Natural Intelligence 1(14): 1-13.
Wang, Y., Wang, Y., Patel, S. and Patel, D. 2006. A layered reference model of the brain (LRMB). IEEE Transaction on System, Man, and Cybernetics 36(2): 124-1333.
Weiner, B. 1980. A cognitive (attribution) – emotion – action model of motivated behavior: An analysis of judgment of help-giving. Journal of Personality and Social Pysichology 39(2): 186-200.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.