The role of soil, water and forest conservation on vegetation cover and landscape greenness in degraded areas of upper Blue Nile


  • Mengie Belayneh Arba Minch University
  • Teshome Yirgu Arba Minch University
  • Dereje Tsegaye Arba Minch University



degraded land, landscape greenness, NDVI, soil and water conservation, vegetation cover


Recently, large-scale soil, water, and forest conservation/protection practices have been implemented in Ethiopia. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of soil, water, and forest conservation/protection on vegetation cover and landscape greenness in the Gumara watershed. Landsat satellite imageries were used to analyze the changes using land use/cover and net difference vegetation index (NDVI) and its differencing methods. Over the period 1995-2017, forestland and shrub-woodland covers increased by 48.4% (2.8-4.2%) and 8.3% (20.2-21.9%), respectively. Similarly, the NDVI result showed high improvements in landscape greenness and vegetation density. A 13.5% of the watershed area experienced a significant increase, of which 61.4% was observed on forest and shrub-woodland covers. The watershed area covered by very high (NDVI>0.4) and high (NDVI 0.3-0.4) vegetation density classes were increased by 189.2 and 145.5%, respectively. Upon the increasing human pressure and related problems, the observed improvement of vegetation cover and landscape greenness show the positive impact of soil, water, and forest conservation/protection practices done for the last two decades. Therefore, strengthening the current efforts and investing more in sustainable and evidence/priority-based soil, water, and forest conservation measures that are ecologically friendly with diversified livelihood importance can bring a more effective result of land rehabilitation.

Author Biographies

Mengie Belayneh, Arba Minch University

Assistant Professor, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies

Teshome Yirgu, Arba Minch University

Associate Proffesor, Department of Geographyand Environmental Studies

Dereje Tsegaye, Arba Minch University

Associate Professor, Department of Soil Science


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How to Cite

Belayneh, M., Yirgu, T., & Tsegaye, D. (2021). The role of soil, water and forest conservation on vegetation cover and landscape greenness in degraded areas of upper Blue Nile. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management, 9(1), 3181–3192.



Research Article