Indexed By
Article Tools
Email this article (Login required)
Email the author (Login required)
About The Authors

Mohamed N Ali
Associate Professor of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering– Beni-Suef University, Egypt.

Mohammed S Fahmy
Civil Engineering Department, Egypt.

Rehab M Elhefny
Associate Professor of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering in Shoubra, Benha University, Egypt


Information for Author
Visitor Statistic

Application of synthetic and grafted polymeric flocculants in agricultural wastewater treatment

Mohamed N Ali, Mohammed S Fahmy, Rehab M Elhefny
  J. Degrade. Min. Land Manage. , pp. 2829-2836  
Viewed : 32 times


Due to the large amounts of freshwater consumed in Egypt by the agricultural sector that is more than 85% of Egypt share of freshwater in addition to the high concentrations of salts, chemicals and nutrients produced from fertilizers. Reduction of these pollutants concentrations to an acceptable level and breaking the sedimentation stability of colloidal substances and organic particles for reuse for irrigation purposes was associated with the application of biological treatment with coagulants addition. The flocculation process was performed by using polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (polyDADMAC) and polyacrylamide grafted oatmeal (OAT-g-PAM). The scale-pilot consists of an aeration tank equipped with an air blower, sedimentation tank followed by a filtration stage through 20 cm of pottery scrubs media. To study the performance of synthetic and grafted polymeric flocculants, 3 trials were performed. Activated sludge process without adding any polymeric flocculants was the control trial. In the second trial, polyDADMAC was added with a dose of 5 mg/l. Finally, OAT-g-PAM with a dose of 1.25 mg/l was used in the third trial. The physicochemical properties of agricultural wastewater were measured at the national research center in Cairo. It was found that OAT-g-PAM incorporated with activated sludge process was the most effective in treating agricultural wastewater as it achieved COD, BOD,TKN, TP, and TSS removal efficiency up to 92.29%, 93.13%, 90.64%, 90.46%, and 92.5%, respectively which made it suitable to reuse for agricultural purposes, in addition to its ability to biodegrade, environmentally friendly, and low dosage required compared to polyDADMAC.


agricultural wastewater; synthetic polymeric; grafted polymeric; polyDADMAC; OAT-g-PAM

Full Text:



Ariffin, A., Razali, M.A.A. and Ahmad, Z. 2012. PolyDADMAC and Polyacrylamide as a Hybrid Flocculation System in the Treatment of Pulp and Paper Mills Waste Water. Chemical Engineering Journal 179: 107-11, doi: . 10.1016/j.cej.2011.10.067.

Bharti, S. and Mishra, S. 2016. Synthesis, characterization and application of polymethyl methacrylate grafted oatmeal: a potential flocculant for wastewater treatment. International Journal of Environmental Research 10 (1): 169-78, doi: 10.22059/ijer.2016.56899.

Bharti, S., Mishra, S. and Narendra, L.V. 2016. Comparative studies on the high performance flocculating agent of novel polyacrylamide grafted oatmeal. Advances in Polymer Technology 35 (2): 1-18, doi: 10.1002/adv.21540.

Bharti, S., Mishra, S. and Sen, G. 2013. Ceric ion initiated synthesis of polyacrylamide grafted oatmeal: its application as flocculant for wastewater treatment. Carbohydrate Polymers 93 (2): 528-36, doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.11.072.

Bolto, B. and Gregory, J. 2007. Organic polyelectrolytes in water treatment.Water Research 41 (11): 2301-24, doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2007.03.012.

Bolto, B. and Xie, Z. 2019. The use of polymers in the flotation treatment of wastewater. Processes 7(6), doi: 10.3390/PR7060374.

Bolto, B.A., Dixon, D.R., Eldridge, R.J. and King, S.J. 1998. The use of cationic polymers as primary coagulants in water treatment.Chemical Water and Wastewater Treatment V: 173-85, doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-72279-0_15.

Bratby, J. 2006. Coagulation and Flocculation in Water and Wastewater Treatment, Second Edition. Accessed March 15, 2021.

Cicek, N. 2003. A review of membrane bioreactors and their potential application in the treatment of agricultural wastewater. Canadian Biosystems Engineering / Le Genie Des Biosystems Au Canada 45 (September).

Czerwionka, K., Wilinska, A. and Tuszynska, A. 2020. The use of organic coagulants in the primary precipitation process at wastewater treatment plants.Water (Switzerland) 12 (6), doi: 10.3390/W12061650.

Drewnowski, J. and Makinia, J. 2014. The role of biodegradable particulate and colloidal organic compounds in biological nutrient removal activated sludge systems.International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 11 (7): 1973-88, doi: 10.1007/s13762-013-0402-1.

ECP 501,Egyptian Code of Practice for the Reuse of Treated Wastewater for Agricultural Purposes. 2005. Egypt: The Ministry of Housing Utilities and Urban Communities.

Hatten, J and Liles, G. 2019. A Healthy Balance - The Role of Physical and Chemical Properties in Maintaining Forest Soil Function in a Changing World, 373-96, doi: 10.1016/b978-0-444-63998-1.00015-x.

Hegazy, E., El-Din, B., Fouad, H.A. and Kamel, A.M. 2013. Moving bed biofilm reactor with activated sludge for treating paper industrial wastewater. International Journal of Academic Research 5 (4): 156-61, doi: 10.7813/2075-4124.2013/5-4/a.22.

Jayakody, P. 2008. Drivers and Characteristics of Wastewater Agriculture in Developing Countries: Results from a Global Assessment. In Research Report. International Water Management Institute (Issue 127).

Lee, C. G., Fletcher, T.D. and Sun, G. 2009. Nitrogen removal in constructed wetland systems.Engineering in Life Sciences 9 (1): 11-22, doi: 10.1002/elsc.200800049.

Lee, C.S., Robinson, J. and Chong, M.F. 2014. A review on application of flocculants in wastewater treatment. Process Safety and Environmental Protection 92 (6): 489-508, doi: 10.1016/j.psep.2014.04.010.

Lee, K. E., Morad, N., Teng, T.T. and Poh, B.T. 2012. Development, characterization and the application of hybrid materials in coagulation/flocculation of wastewater: a review.Chemical Engineering Journal 203: 370-86, doi: 10.1016/j.cej.2012.06.109.

Lu, S.Y., Zhang, P.Y. and Cui, W.H. 2010. Impact of plant harvesting on nitrogen and phosphorus removal in constructed wetlands treating agricultural region wastewater. International Journal of Environment and Pollution 43 (4): 339-53, doi: 10.1504/IJEP.2010.036931.

Metcalf, E., Abu-Orf, M.,Bowden, G., Burton, F.L., Pfrang,W., Stensel, H.D., Tchobanoglous, G. and Tsuchihashi, R. 2014. Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Resource Recovery. New York, NY, USA: McGraw Hill Education.

Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation, Arab Republic of Egypt. 2005. National Water Resources Plan for Egypt 2017. Water Policy International Ltd.

Ngema, S.S., Basson, A.K. and Maliehe, T.S. 2020. Synthesis, characterization and application of polyacrylamide grafted bioflocculant. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 115: 102821, doi: 10.1016/j.pce.2019.102821.

Rozema, E. R., VanderZaag, A.C., Wood, J. D., Drizo, A., Zheng, Y., Madani, A. and Gordon, R.J. 2016. Constructed wetlands for agricultural wastewater treatment in Northeastern North America: a review.Water (Switzerland) 8 (5): 1-14, doi: 10.3390/w8050173.

Singh, R.P., Pal, S. and Mal, D. 2006. A high performance flocculating agent and viscosifiers based on cationic guar gum. Macromolecular Symposia 242: 227-34, doi: 10.1002/masy.200651031.

Sinha, S., Mishra, S. and Sen, G. 2013. Microwave initiated synthesis of polyacrylamide grafted casein (CAS-g-PAM)-its application as a flocculant. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 60: 141-47, doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2013.05.012.

Sperling, M. von., Freire, V.H. and de Lemos Chernicharo, C,A. 2014. Performance evaluation of a USB - activated sludge system treating municipal wastewater performance evaluation of a UASB - activated sludge system treating municipal wastewater.Water Science and Technology 43 (11): 323-28.

Vymazal, J. and Kröpfelová, L. 2009. Removal of nitrogen in constructed wetlands with horizontal sub-surface flow: a review. Wetlands 29: 1114-1124.

Zahari, N.M., Khairuddin, P,N, Mohiyaden, H.A., Sidek, L.M. and Mohamad, D. 2019. Biological performance of Integrated Fixed Film Activated Sludge (IFAS) process. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 551(1): 0-6, doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/551/1/012005.

Zahrim, A.Y., Dexter, Z.D., Joseph, C.G. and Hilal, N. 2017. Effective coagulation-flocculation treatment of highly polluted palm oil mill biogas plant wastewater using dual coagulants: decolourisation, kinetics and phytotoxicity studies.Journal of Water Process Engineering 16: 258-269, doi: 10.1016/j.jwpe.2017.02.005.


Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Indexed By