Degradation of groundwater quality due to the occurrence of salty-tasted water in Bayat District, Klaten, Central Java, Indonesia


  • Doni Prakasa Eka Putra Universitas Gadjah Mada
  • Deviana Halim
  • Sandi Suko Widagdo
  • Rilo Restu Surya Atmaja



Bayat-Indonesia, groundwater quality, salty-tasted groundwater


Bayat is located in the south of central Java, Indonesia. In the quaternary deposit area, groundwater on some dug wells taste salty and previous studies discovered salty-tasted water with electrical conductivity (EC) >5000 μS/cm and chloride concentration >1000 mg/l. Local information reported that the number of wells containing salty-tasted water increased after the 6.2 Mw earthquake on May 27th, 2006 in Yogyakarta. This research aims to determine the distribution of salty-tasted groundwater and its relation with the geological condition by conducting a hydrogeological investigation. On the hydrogeological investigation, dug wells were observed for physical-chemical characteristics such as total dissolved solid (TDS) and EC; additionally, groundwater samples were collected for chloride ion analysis. Geology of the study area is mapped based on previous studies. The result showed that the high TDS/EC groundwater correlated with salty-tasted water which found in three different areas, including in the west, middle and east part of the study area. The occurrence of salty-tasted water strongly aligns with faults zone. In conclusion, deep salty-tasted water emerges not only locally near the fault zone but also associated with trapped groundwater and buried anticline. In regard to those sources, it can be predicted that in the near future more dug wells water may turn into salty-tasted water, especially in the area closed to the fault zone.

Author Biography

Doni Prakasa Eka Putra, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Department of Geological Engineering
Faculty of Engineering


Atmaja, R.R S. and Putra, D.P.E. 2016. Geology and origin of springs around Bentolo Lake, Blora, Central Java. Proceeding, 9th National Seminar of Earth Science. 6-7 October 2016. Yogyakarta, Indonesia. p 325–336 (in Indonesian).

Atmaja, R.R.S. and Putra, D.P.E. 2017. The Effect of Fault toward Groundwater Flow and the Occurrence of Chloride-rich Groundwater in Carbonate Rocks Aquifer: Case Study in Tinapan, Todanan, Blora, Central Java. Proceeding Kongres & Pertemuan Ilmiah Tahunan Ke-2 Perhimpunan Ahli Airtanah Indonesia (PIT-PAAI). 13-15 September 2017. Yogyakarta, Indonesia (in Indonesian).

Badan Pusat Statistik. 2020. Klaten Regency in Figures, BPS Statistics of Klaten Regency. 237p.

Eby, G.N. 2004. Principles of Environmental Geochemistry. Thompson Learning Inc. The United States of America.

Fetter, C.W. 2001. Applied Hydrogeology, 4th Edition. Prentice Hall Inc. New Jersey.

Fetter, C.W., Boving, T.B and Kreamer, D. 2018. Contaminant Hydrogeology - 3rd edition, ISBN: ISBN 10: 1-4786-3279-8, Publisher: Waveland Press, Inc., 647 pages.

Guo, J. Zhuo, X. Zhang, Y. Ta, M. and Wang, Y. 2019. Occurrence and Hydrochemical Characteristics of Saline and Salty Springs in the Sichuan Basin of China. Geofluids. 2019: 1-16, doi: 10.1155/2019/8671973.

Halim, D. 2016. The Anomaly of Groundwater Geochemistry and its Correlation with Geological Condition in Jambakan, Karangasem, Ngerangan, Bayat subdistrict, Klaten regency, Central Java, Bachelor Thesis. Department of Geological Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, KlaUniversitas Gadjah Mada. Yogyakarta (in Indonesian).

Hendrayana, H. 1993. Hydrogeologie und Groundwassergewinnuung Im Yogyakarta Becken, Indonesien. RWTH Aachen.

Hoelting, B. and Coldeway, W.G. 2013. Hydrogeologie: EinFuerung in die Allgemeine und Angewandte Hydrogeologie. Springer. Auflage. 438p.

Kindinger, J.L., Davis, J.B., Swarzenski, P. and Flocks, J.G. 2001. Geophysical investigations of upward migrating saline water from the Lower to Upper Floridan aquifer, Central Indian River Region, Florida. In Eve L. Kuniansky, editor, 2001, U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Proceedings, Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4011, p. 135-140.

MacDonald and Partners. 1984. Greater Yogyakarta Groundwater Resources Study, Volume 3: Groundwater. Directorate General of Water Resources Development Project (P2AT), Ministry of Public Works, Government of the Republic of Indonesia.

Maslia, M.L. and Prowell, D.C. 1990. Effect of Faults on Fluid Flow and Chloride Contamination in Carbonate Aquifer System. Journal of Hydrology 115(1–4):1–49, doi: 10.1016/0022-1694(90)90196-5.

Mazor, E. 2004. Chemical and Isotopic Groundwater Hydrology The Applied Approach, 3rd Edition. Marcel Dekker Inc. New York.

Mohan, T., Harvey, C. and Crosby, D. 2000. The Chemistry of Geothermal Fluids in Indonesia and Their Relationship to Water and vapour Dominated Systems, Proceeding World Geothermal Congress 2000. May 28 - June 10, 2000. Kyushu – Tohoku, Japan.

PAHIAA. 1986. The Classification of Groundwater Salinity. Jakarta (in Indonesian).

Putra, D.P.E. 2007. The Impact of Urbanization on Groundwater Quality: A Case Study in Yogyakarta City. Herausgegeben Vom (Lehrstuhl) fuer Ingenieurgeologie und Hydrogeologie, University Prof. Dr. Azzam, RWTH, Aachen, Germany.

Putranto, T.T., Hidayat, W.K. and Wijaya, K. 2017. Hydrochemical assessment of unconfined aquifer system in Bayat Melange Complex, Klaten, Indonesia. International Journal of GEOMATE 13(39): 17-24, doi: 10.21660/2017.39.17336.

Schmoll, O., G. Chilton, H.J. and I. Chorus, I. 2006. Protecting Groundwater for Health: Managing the Quality of Drinking-water Sources. World Health Organization, ISBN: 1843390795, Published by IWA Publishing, London, UK.

Setiadi, H., Mudiana, W. and Akus, U.T. 1990. Map of Hydrogeology of Indonesia, scale 1:100.000, Sheet 1407-5 and 1408-2 Yogyakarta. Directorate of Environmental Geology . Bandung (in Indonesian).

Setiawan, N.I., Osanai, Y. and Prasetyadi, C. 2013. A preliminary view and importance of metamorphic geology from Jiwo Hills in Central Java. Proceedings Seminar Nasional Kebumian 6th, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Yogyakarta, Indonesia. p 11–23.

Singhal, B.B.S. 2008. Nature of Hard Rock Aquifers: Hydrogeological Uncertainties and Ambiguities. In S. Ahmed, R. Jayakumar, and A. Salih (Eds.), Groundwater Dynamics in Hard Rocks Aquifers Sustainable Management and Optimal Monitoring Network Design. Capital Publishing Company, India, pp. 22–39.

Smyth, H.R., Crowley, Q.G., Hall, R., Kinny, P.D., Hamilton, P.J. and Schmidt, D.N. 2011. A Toba-scale eruption in the Early Miocene: The Semilir eruption, East Java, Indonesia. Lithos 126(3–4):198–211, doi: 10.1016/j.lithos.2011.07.010.

Smyth, H.R., Hamilton, P.J., Hall, R. and Kinny, P.D. 2007. The deep crust beneath island arcs: Inherited zircons reveal a Gondwana continental fragment beneath East Java, Indonesia. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 258(1–2):269–282, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2007.03.044.

Stefanakis, A.I. Zouzias, D. and Marsellos, A. 2015. Groundwater Pollution: Human and Natural Sources Risk. In J.N. Govil (Eds.), Environmental Science and Engineering Vol 4: Water Pollution. Studium Press LLC, pp. 82-102.

Surono, Toha, B. and Sudarno, I. 1992. Geological Map of The Surakarta - Giritontro Quadrangles, Java Scale 1:100.000. Geological Research and Development Center of Indonesia. Bandung.

Van Bemmelen, R.W. 1949. The Geology of Indonesia Vol. IA, General Geology of Indonesia and Adjacent Archipelagoes, 2nd Edition. Martinus Nyhoff, The Haque. The Netherlands.

Widagdo, S.S. 2016. The Correlation of Groundwater Geochemistry Anomaly and Geology in Melikan, Nengahan, and Tandep Villages, Bayat Subdistrict, Klaten Regency, Central Java. Bachelor Thesis. Department of Geological Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Yogyakarta (in Indonesian).








How to Cite

Putra, D. P. E., Halim, D., Widagdo, S. S., & Atmaja, R. R. S. (2020). Degradation of groundwater quality due to the occurrence of salty-tasted water in Bayat District, Klaten, Central Java, Indonesia. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management, 8(1), 2525–2536.



Research Article