Article Tools
Email this article (Login required)
Email the author (Login required)
About The Author

Shiferaw Alem
Ethiopian Environment and Forest Research Institute
Ethiopia

User
Information for Author
Indexed By








Visitor Statistic

Seed bury vs broadcast in direct seeding: their effects on the germination of different woody plant species, in a degraded semi-arid area, Southern Ethiopia

Shiferaw Alem
  J. Degrade. Min. Land Manage. , pp. 2041-2047  
Viewed : 123 times

Abstract


Direct seeding is considered as an option for afforestation programs to rehabilitate degraded lands. However, scant knowledge is available on the effect of seed sowing techniques on the germination of different woody plants in a semi-arid degraded area. Therefore, the objectives of this study paper are 1) to evaluate the effects of broadcasting vs seed bury on the germination of 15 different woody plant species in a degraded semi-arid area 2) to select woody plants that can result in higher germination percent in the field for restoration projects. To achieve the objectives, a study was carried out in the field, with a randomized complete block design (RCBD). One-way ANOVA, t-test and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. The result indicated that the average germination percent for buried and broadcasted seeds were 18.1% and 5.2%, respectively. Among the broadcasted species seeds, Schinus molle achieved the highest germination (23.3%) while Terminalia browni achieved the lowest germination (0.25%). Among the different species seeds that were buried, Dolanix regia achieved the lowest germination (1.5%) while Sesbania sesban resulted in the highest germination (64%). The t-test result revealed a significant difference in the mean germination of the broadcasted and buried seeds (p<0.05). The ANOVA result also revealed significant differences in the germination of the different families of the species. For most of the studied species (86%), seed bury has resulted in higher germination percent relative to the broadcasted seeds. Therefore, it is recommended that in semi-arid degraded land, it could be better to apply seed bury than the broadcasting when there is an objective to use direct seeding for afforestation.


Keywords


broadcasting; direct seeding; germination; seed bury; semi-arid

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ammondt, S.A., Litton, C.M., Ellsworth, L.M. and Leary, J.K. 2013. Restoration of native plant communities in a Hawaiian dry lowland ecosystem dominated by the invasive grass Megathyrsus maximus. Applied Vegetation Science 16(1): 29-39.

Barnett, J.P. 2014. Direct Seeding Southern Pines: History and Status of a Technique Developed for Restoring Cutover Forests: General Technical Report 187. USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Asheville, NC.

Brooks, S., Cordell, S. and Perry, L. 2009. Broadcast seeding as a potential tool to re-establish native species in degraded dry forest ecosystems in Hawaii. Ecological Restoration 27: 300-305.

Ceccon, E., González, E.J. and Martorell, C. 2016. Is direct seeding a biologically viable strategy for restoring forest ecosystems? evidences from a meta‐analysis. Land Degradation and Development 27(3): 511-520.

de Souza, E.G.G. and Scariot, A. 2014. Direct seeding of dry forest tree species in abandoned pastures: effects of grass canopy and seed burial on germination. Ecological Restoration 29:473–482.

Doust, S.J., Erskine, P.D. and Lamb, D. 2006. Direct seeding to restore rainforest species: microsite effects on the early establishment and growth of rainforest tree seedlings on degraded land in the wet tropics of Australia. Forest Ecology and Management 234: 333–343.

Fisher, K.A., Momen, B. and Kratochvil, R.J. 2011. Is broadcasting seed an effective winter cover crop planting method? Agronomy Journal 103:472–478.

Florentine, S.K, Graz, F.P., Ambrose, G. and O'brien, L. 2013. The current status of different age, direct‐seeded revegetation sites in an agricultural landscape in the burrumbeet region, Victoria, Australia. Land Degradation and Development 24(1): 81-89.

García‐Orth, X. and Martínez‐Ramos, M. 2008. Seed dynamics of early and late-successional tree species in tropical abandoned pastures: seed burial as a way of evading predation. Restoration Ecology 16:435-443.

Grossnickle, S.C. and Ivetić, V. 2017. Direct seeding in reforestation – a field performance. Reforesta 4: 94-142.

Kankaanhuhta, V., Saksa, T. and Smolander, H. 2009. Variation in the results of Norway spruce planting and Scots pine direct seeding in privately-owned forests in southern Finland. Silva Fennica 43: 51–70.

MoWR. 2006. Ethiopian water technology centre, Butajira – Ziway Areas Development Study. MoWR, Ethiopia.

Negreros-Castillo, P., Snook, L.K. and Mize, C.W. 2003. Regenerating mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) from seed in Quintana Roo, Mexico: the effects of sowing method and clearing treatment. Forest Ecology and Management 183(1): 351-362.

Nonogaki, H. 2017. Seed Biology Updates—Highlights and new discoveries in seed dormancy and germination research. Frontiers in Plant Science 8: 1–16.

Nonogaki, H., Basse, G. W. and Bewley, J. D. 2010. Germination- still a mystery. Plant Science 176 (6): 574 – 581.

Pandey, D.N. and Prakash, N.P. 2014. Tropical Dry Forest Restoration: Science and Practice of Direct Seeding in a Nutshell; RSPCB Occasional Paper 7. Rajasthan, India.

Schmidt, L 2008, A review of direct sowing versus planting in tropical afforestation and land rehabilitation. Museum Tusculanum, Frederiksberg.

Silva, R.R. and Vieira, D.L.M. 2017. Direct seeding of 16 Brazilian savanna trees: responses to seed burial, mulching and an invasive grass. Applied Vegetation Science 20: 410–421.

Sovu, Savadogo, P., Tigabu, M. and Odén, P.C. 2010. Restoration of former grazing lands in the highlands of Laos using direct seeding of four native tree species: seedling establishment and growth performance. Mountain Research and Development 30: 232–243.

Tesfaye, B. 2015. Investigation into some of the engineering properties of soils found in Ziway town, Ethiopia. M.Sc. thesis, Addis Abeba University, Addis Abeba.

Tunjai, P. and Elliott, S. 2011. Effects of seed traits on the success of direct seeding for restoring southern Thailand's lowland evergreen forest ecosystem. New Forests 43:319–333.

Wang, J., Ren, H., Yang, L. and Li, D. 2011. Factors influencing establishment by direct seeding of indigenous tree species in typical plantations and shrubland in South China. New Forests 42: 19–33.

Wenny, D.G. 2000. Seed dispersal, seed predation, and seedling recruitment of a neo-tropical montane tree. Ecological Monographs 70:331–351.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Indexed By