Article Tools
Email this article (Login required)
Email the author (Login required)
About The Author

Birhan Getachew
Debre Tabor University Department of Geography and Environmental Studies

Information for Author
Visitor Statistic

Trend analysis of temperature and rainfall in south gonder zone, anhara ethiopia.

Birhan Getachew
  J. Degrade. Min. Land Manage. , pp. 1111-1125  
Viewed : 502 times


This study mainly focuses on exploring trend analysis of temperature and rainfall in the case of south Gonder zone. The analysis is based on the temperature and rainfall variation in south Gonder zone over three stations at Addis Zemen, Nefas Mewcha and Mekane Eyesus. The duration of the study period for temperature and rainfall data was chosen as 1996-2015 for Addis Zemen, 1986-2015 for Nefas Mewcha and 1996-2015 for Mekane Eyesus. The Belg rainfall have been found much more variable (>30%) than the Kiremet rainfall in which the coefficient of variation is greater than 30% over the study area. The findings of the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test revealed that there was no significant trend in the annual and seasonal rainfall data whereas monthly rainfall of April and November shown statistically significant increasing trendover the study area. However, the trend was not significant, the annual, the Kiremet and monthly rainfall during June, August and November shows an increasing particularly November was also statically significant as the computed p-value is less than the significance level α = 0.05.On the other hand, the Belg rainfall and monthly rainfall of March and April shows a decreasing trend. Statistically significant increases of mean annual temperature have been found in Addis Zemen and Nefas Mocha whereas statistically insignificant decrease of mean annual temperature has found in Mekane Eyesus. On the other hand, statistically significant increase of annual maximum temperature has been found in Addis Zemen while statistically insignificant increase of annual maximum temperature have been found for Nefas Mewcha and Mekane Eyesus station. Besides, statistically significant increase of annual minimum temperature has been found in Nefas Mewcha whereas statistically insignificant increase of annual minimum temperature has been found in Addis Zemen and Mekane Eyesus. The rates of change in mean annual temperature for Addis Zemen 1.6980c per 20 years and Nefas Mocha 0.8130c per 30 years have been found greater than the rate of change which was found at national and global level. Therefore, it is recommended that small scale study should be undertaken to clearly detect the rate of climate change and to develop appropriate adaptation strategies for the given agricultural system with the prevailing climatic conditions.


climate; Mann Kendall; rainfall; temperature

Full Text:



Abate, S. 2009. Climate Change Impact on Livelihood, Vulnerability and Coping Mechanisms: A Case Study of West-Arsi Zone, Ethiopia. LUCSUS, Lund University SE- 22644, Lund, Sweden.

Birhan, G. 2017. Impacts of climate change on crop yields in south Gonder zone, Ethiopia. World Journal of Agricultural Research 5 (2): 102-110.

Deressa, T.T. 2006. Measuring the Economic Impact of Climate Change on Ethiopian Agriculture: Ricardian Approach. CEEPA Discussion Paper No. 21. CEEPA, University of Pretoria. South Africa.

Easterling, D.R., Meehl, G.A., Parmesan, C., Changnon, S.A., Karl, T.R. and Mearns, L.O. 2000. Climate extremes: Observations, modeling, and impacts. Science 289: 2068–2074.

IPCC. 2001. Climate change 2001: The Third Assessment Report of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, UK.

IPCC. 2007a. Climate Change 2007:The Physical Science Basis, Working Group 1 Contribution to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Solomon, S., Quin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Avertyt, K., Tignor, M., and Miller, H. (eds), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK and Newyork, NY.

IPCC. 2014. The IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report. What’s in it for Africa? - Executive Summary. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, USA, 35.

Johannes, G.M. and Mebratu, K. 2009. Local innovation in climate change adaptation by Ethiopian pastoralists. PROLINNOVA-report, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Kendall, M.G. 1975. Rank Correlation Measures; Charles Griffin: London, UK.

Klein Tank, A.M.G. and Können, G.P. 2003. Trends in indices of daily temperature and precipitation extremes in Europe, 1946–99. Journal of Climate 16: 3665–3680.

Kothawale, D.R., Munot, A.A. and Krishna, K.K. 2010. Surface air temperature variability over India during 1901–2007, and its association with ENSO. Climate Research 42: 89–104.

Lautze S., Aklilu Y., Raven-Roberts A., Young H., Kebede G. and Learning, J. 2003. Risk and Vulnerability in Ethiopia: Learning from the Past, Responding to the Present, preparing for the future. Report for the U.S. Agency for International Development. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Ma nn, H.B. (1945) Non-parametric tests against trend. Econometric 13: 245–259.

Manton, M.J., Della-Marta, P.M., Haylock, M.R., Hennessy, K.J., Nicholls, N., Chambers, L.E., Collins, D.A., Daw, G., Finet, A., Gunawan, D., Inape, K., Isobe, H., Kestin, T.S., Lefale, P., Leyu, C.H., Lwin, T., Maitrepierre, L., Ouprasitwong, N., Page, C.M., Pahalad, J., Plummer, N., Salinger, M.J., Suppiah, R., Tran, V.L., Trewin, B., Tibig, I. and Yee, D. 2001. Trends in extreme daily rainfall and temperature in Southeast Asia and the South Pacific: 1961–1998. International Journal of Climatology 21(3): 269–284.

McSweeney, C., New, M. and Lizcano, G. 2008. UNDP Climate Change Country Profiles: Ethiopia.

Moberg, A. and Jones, P.D. 2005. Trends in indices for extremes in daily temperature and precipitation in central and western Europe, 1901–99. International Journal of Climatology 25(9): 1149–1171.

Moberg, A., Jones, P.D., Lister, D., Walther, A., Brunet, M., Jacobeit, J., Alexander, L.V., Della-Marta, M.P., Luterbacher, J., Yiou, P., Chen, D., Klein Tank, A.M.G.,Saladié, O., Sigró, J., Aguilar, E., Alexandersson, H., Almarza, C., Auer, I., Barriendos,M., Begert, M., Bergström, H., Böhm, R., Butler, C.J., Caesar, J., Drebs, A., Founda, D., Gerstengarbe, F.W., Micela, G., Maugeri, M., Österle, H., Pandzic, K., Petrakis, M., Srnec, L., Tolasz, R., Tuomenvirta, H., Werner, P.C., Linderholm, H., Philipp, A., Wanner, H. and Xoplaki, E. 2006. Indices for daily temperature and precipitation extremes in Europe analyzed for the period 1901–2000. Journal of Geophysisal Research Atmospheres 111(D22), DOI: 10.1029/2006JD007103.

NMA (2007) Climate Change National Adaptation program of Action (NAPA) of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa: NMA, Oxfam International.

NMS (National Meteorological Services). 2007. Climate Change National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA) of Ethiopia. NMS, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

NMSA (National Meteorological Services Agency). 2001. Initial National Communication of Ethiopia to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).NMSA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Parry, M.L., Canziani, O.F., Palutikof, J.P., van der Linden, P.J. and Hanson, C.E. 2007. Climate Change: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK.

Plummer, N., Salinger, M.J., Nicholls, N., Suppiah, R., ennessy, K.J., Leighton, R.M., Trewin, B., Page, M.C. and Lough, J.M. 1999. Changes in climate extremes over the Australian region and New Zealand during the twentieth century. In Weather and Climate Extremes: Changes, Variations and a Perspective from the Insurance Industry;Karl, T.R., Nicholls, N., Ghazi, A., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 183–202.

Sheikh, M.M., Manzoor, N., Ashraf, J., Adnan, M., Collins, D., Hameed, S., Manton, M.J., Ahmed, U., Baidya, S.K., Borgaonkar, H.P., Islam, N., Jayasinghearachchi, D., Kothawale, D.R., Premalal, K.H.M.S., Revadekar, J.V. and Shrestha, M.L. 2015. Trends in extreme daily rainfall and temperature indices over South Asia. International Journal of Climatology 35(7): 1625–1637.

UNFCCC .2001. Initial National communication under the United Nations Framework convention on climate change(UNFCCC) June 2001.

Vincent, L.A. and Mekis, E. 2006. Changes in daily and extreme temperature and precipitation indices for Canada over the twentieth century. Atmosphere-Ocean 44: 177–193.

Webb, P. and von Braun, J. 1994. Famine and Food Security in Ethiopia: Lessons for Africa. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Woldemlak, B. and Conway, D. 2009. A note on temporal and spatial variability of rainfall in drought prone Amhara regions of Ethiopia. International Journal of Climatology 27:1467-147


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Indexed By