Decolorization of Rhodamine B and conversion into saturated fatty acids by laccase-producing fungi isolated from lake sediment




decolorization , enzyme , fungi, laccase, Rhodamine B


The persistence of the carcinogenic Rhodamine B dye poses significant risks to human health. Utilizing a unique fungal strain for its degradation offers a sustainable solution to mitigate these hazards. Bioremediation techniques have demonstrated substantial promise in addressing recalcitrant pollutants such as dyes. In this particular study, laccase-producing fungi were carefully chosen for their potential to break down the toxic textile dye Rhodamine B. These selected fungi Cerrena unicolor FBR03 exhibited an impressive maximum degradation rate of 95.10%. Additionally, an analysis using GC-MS revealed the emergence of breakdown products, including 2-cyclopenten-1-one, 3-hydroxy-2-methyl, thymine, dodecanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, n-hexadecanoic acid, and dibutyl phthalate. These results underscore the potential of this fungal strain as a promising organism for the effective degradation of dye compounds, while simultaneously producing valuable saturated fatty acids as by-products.


Baldev, E., MubarakAli, D., Ilavarasi, A., Pandiaraj, D., Sheik Syed Ishack, K.A. and Thajuddin, N. 2013. Degradation of synthetic dye, Rhodamine B to environmentally non-toxic products using microalgae. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 105:207-214.

Bilal, M., Asgher, M., Parra-Saldivar, R., Hu, H., Wang, W., Zhang, X. and Iqbal, H.M.N. 2017. Immobilized ligninolytic enzymes: An innovative and environmental responsive technology to tackle dye-based industrial pollutants - A review. The Science of the Total Environment 576:646-659.

Bilal, M., Rasheed, T., Nabeel, F., Iqbal, H.M.N. and Zhao, Y. 2019. Hazardous contaminants in the environment and their laccase - assisted degradation - A review. Journal of Environmental Management 234:253-264.

Cuiping, B., Xianfeng, X., Wenqi, G., Dexin, F., Mo, X., Zhongxue, G. and Nian, X. 2011. Removal of rhodamine B by ozone-based advanced oxidation process. Desalination 278:84-90.

Goralczyk-Binkowska, A., Jasinska, A., Dlugonski, A., Plocinski, P. and Dlugonski, J. 2020. Laccase activity of the ascomycete fungus Nectriella pironii and innovative strategies for its production on leaf litter of an urban park. PLoS ONE 15:e0231453.

Hermann, K.L., Costa, T.M., Helm, C.V., Marconatto, L., Borges, L.G.D.A., Vegini, A.A., Giongo, A. and Tavares, L.B.B. 2020. Discoloration of Rhodamine B dye white-rot fungi in solid bleached sulfate paperboard coated with polyethylene terephthalate: scale-up into non-sterile packed-bed bioreactor. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 8:103685.

Kalpana, D., Velmurugan, N., Shim, J.H., Oh, B.T., Senthil, K. and Soo-Lee, Y. 2012. Biodiscoloration and biodegradation of reactive Levafix Blue E-RA granulate dye by the white rot fungus Irpex lacteus. Journal of Environmental Management 111:142-149.

Li, Y., Yi, Z., Zhang, J., Wu, M., Liu, W. and Duan, P. 2009. Efficient degradation of Rhodamine B by using ethylenediamine-CuCl2 complex under alkaline conditions. Journal of Hazadous Materials 15:1172-1174.

Liang, L., Cheng, L., Zhang, Y., Wang, Q., Wu, Q., Xue, Y. and Meng, X. 2020. Efficiency and mechanisms of rhodamine B degradation in Fenton-like systems based on zero-valent iron. RSC Advances 10:28509-28515.

Motahari, F., Mozdianfard, and Salavati-Niasari, M. 2015. Synthesis and adsorption studies of NiO nanoparticles in the presence of H2acacen ligand, for removing Rhodamine B in wastewater treatment. Process Safety and Environmental Protection 93:282-292.

Nagaraja, R., Kottam, N., Girija, C.R. and Nagabhushana, B.M. 2012. Photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B dye under UV/solar light using ZnO nanopowder synthesized by solution combustion route. Powder Technology 215-216:91-97.

Rasheed, T., Bilal, M., Nabeel, F., Adeel, M. and Iqbal, H.N.I. 2019. Environmentally - related contaminants of high concern: Potential sources and analytical modalities for detection, quantification, and treatment. Environment International 122:52-66.

Rodriguez-Couto, S. 2015. Fungal laccase in the textile industry. In: Fungal Biomolecules: Sources, Applications and Recent Developments (pp. 63-72). Wiley Press.

Saravanan, S., Carolin, F.C., Kumar, P.S., Chitra, B. and Rangasamy, G. 2022. Biodegradation of textile dye Rhodamine B by Brevundimonas diminuta and screening of their breakdown metabolites. Chemosphere 308:136266.

Shakerian, F., Zhao, J. and Li, S.P. 2020. Recent development in the application of immobilized oxidative enzymes for bioremediation of hazardous micropollutants-A review. Chemosphere 239:124716.

Singh, D. and Gupta, N. 2020. Microbial laccase: a robust enzyme and its industrial applications. Biologia 75:1183-1193.

Sun, Y., Liu, Z.L., Hu, B.Y., Chen, Q.J., Yang, A.Z., Wang, Q.Y., Li, X.F., Zhang, J.Y., Zhang, G.Q. and Zhao, Y.C. 2021. Purification and characteriazation of a thermo- and pH-stable laccase from the litter-decomposing fungus Gymnopus luxurians and laccase mediatior systems for dye decolrization. Frontiers in Microbiology 12:672620.

Tatebe, C., Zhong, X., Ohtsuki, T., Kubota, H., Sato, K. and Akiyama. 2014. A simple and rapid chromatographic method to determine unautherized basic colorants (rhodamine B, auramine O, and pararosaniline) in processed foods. Food Science & Nutrition 2:547-556.

Tavallali, H., Baezzat, M.R., Deilamy-Rad, G., Parhami, A. and Hasanli, N. 2015. An ultrasensitive and highly selective fluorescent and colorimetric chemosensor for citrate ions based on rhodamine B and its application as the first molecular security keypad lock based on phosphomolybdic acid and citrate inputs. Journal of Luminescence 160:328-336.

Vithalani, P. and Bhatt, N.S. 2023. Mycoremediation of rhodamine B through Aspergillus fumidatus P5 and evaluation of degradative pathway. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 2023:1-10.

Wisniewska, K.M., Twarda-Clapa, A. and Bialkowska, A.M. 2021. Screening of novel laccase producers - Isolation and characteriazation of cold-adapted laccse from Kabatiella bupleuri G3 capable of synthetic dye decolrization. Biomolecules 11:828.

Xu, L., Sun, K., Wang, F., Zhao, L., Hu, J., Ma, H. and Ding, Z. 2020. Laccase production by Trametes versicolor in solid-state fermention using tea residue as substrate and its application in dye decolorization. Journal of Environmental Management 270:110904.

Yin, Q., Zhou, G., Peng, C., Zhang, Y., Kues, U., Liu, J., Xiao, Y. and Fang, Z. 2019. The first fungal laccase with an alkaline pH optimum obtained by directed evolution and its application in indigo dye decolorization. AMB Express 9:151.








How to Cite

Thipraksa, J., Michu, P., Kongthong, A., & Chaijak, P. (2024). Decolorization of Rhodamine B and conversion into saturated fatty acids by laccase-producing fungi isolated from lake sediment. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management, 11(2), 5443–5452.



Research Article