Indexed By
Article Tools
Email this article (Login required)
Email the author (Login required)
About The Authors

Ranno Marlany Rachman
Department of Civil Engineering, Halu Oleo University

Department of Civil Engineering, Halu Oleo University, Kendari, 93232, Indonesia

Uniadi Mangidi
Department of Civil Engineering, Halu Oleo University

Department of Civil Engineering, Halu Oleo University, Kendari, 93232, Indonesia

Yulinah Trihadiningrum
Department of Environmental Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember

Author Guidelines

SJR Rank

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Sinta Rank

Sinta Rank

Visitor Statistic

Solidification and stabilization of mercury-contaminated tailings in artisanal and small-scale gold mining using tras soil

Ranno Marlany Rachman, Uniadi Mangidi, Yulinah Trihadiningrum
  J. Degrade. Min. Land Manage. , pp. 4575-4582  
Viewed : 210 times


Artisanal and small-scale gold is known to be sources of mercury pollution. This mercury contamination occurs when gold is isolated by the amalgamation method, contamination occurs. Mercury pollution in small-scale artisanal gold mining in the Kulon Progo area of Yogyakarta, the lowest tailing content was 164.49 mg kg-1, and the highest was 383.21 mg kg-1. This value exceeded the quality standard stipulated by Indonesian Government Regulation 22 of 2021 of 75 mg kg-1. The technology that can control pollution is stabilization/solidification (S/S). This research aimed to determine the optimum composition of the tailings mixture with tras soil. Variations in the design of tras soil with tailings were 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 30:70, 20:80, and 10:90. The results showed that the optimum tras: tailings soil composition was 90:10, with a compressive test of 31 t m-2. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was 0.0033 mg L-1 according to the quality standard of Indonesian Government Regulation no. 22, 2021, with a value of 0.05 mg L-1. The compressive strength results follow the quality of the US EPA of 35 t m-2.


mercury; stabilization/solidification; tailing; tras soil

Full Text:



Agboola, O., Babatunde, D.E., Fayomi, O.S.I., Sadiku, E.R., Popoola, P., Moropeng, L. and Mamudu, O.A. 2020. A review on the impact of mining operation: Monitoring, assessment and management. Results in Engineering 8:100181, doi:10.1016/j.rineng.2020.100181.

Bose-O’Reilly, S., Lettmeier, B., Gothe, R.M., Beinhoff, C., Siebert, U. and Drasch, G. 2008. Mercury as a serious health hazard for children in gold mining areas. Environmental Research 107(1):89-97, doi:10.1016/j.envres.2008.01.009.

Cao, W., Zhang, L., Miao, Y. and Qiu, L. 2021. Research progress in the enhancement technology of soil vapor extraction of volatile petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts 23(11):1650-1662, doi:10.1039/D1EM00170A.

Chen, L., Wang, L., Cho, D.W., Tsang, D.C., Tong, L., Zhou, Y. and Poon, C.S. 2019. Sustainable stabilization/solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash by incorporation of green materials. Journal of Cleaner Production 222:335-343, doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.03.057.

Cheng, S., Chen, T., Xu, W., Huang, J., Jiang, S. and Yan, B. 2020. Application research of biochar for the remediation of soil heavy metals contamination: a review. Molecules 25(14):3167, doi:10.3390/molecules25143167.

Correia, A.A., Matos, M.P., Gomes, A.R. and Rasteiro, M.G. 2020. Immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soils - performance assessment in conditions similar to a real scenario. Applied Sciences 10(22):7950, doi:10.3390/app10227950.

Donatello, S., Fernández Jiménez, A. and Palomo, A. 2012. An assessment of Mercury immobilisation in alkali activated fly ash (AAFA) cements. Journal of Hazardous Materials 213:207-215, doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.01.081.

Drace, K., Kiefer, A.M., Veiga, M.M., Williams, M.K., Ascari, B., Knapper, K.A. and Cizdziel, J.V. 2012. Mercury-free, small-scale artisanal gold mining in Mozambique: utilization of magnets to isolate gold at clean tech mine. Journal of Cleaner Production 32:88-95, doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.03.022.

Ekino, S., Susa, M., Ninomiya, T., Imamura, K. and Kitamura, T. 2007. Minamata disease revisited: an update on the acute and chronic manifestations of methyl mercury poisoning. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 262(1-2):131-144, doi:10.1016/j.jns.2007.06.036.

Esdaile, L.J. and Chalker, J.M. 2018. The mercury problem in artisanal and small‐scale gold mining. Chemistry–A European Journal 24(27):6905-6916, doi:10.1002/chem.201704840.

Hafez, H., Kurda, R., Kurda, R., Al-Hadad, B., Mustafa, R. and Ali, B. 2020. A critical review on the influence of fine recycled aggregates on technical performance, environmental impact and cost of concrete. Applied Sciences 10(3):1018, doi:10.3390/app10031018.

Huang, T.Y., Chiueh, P.T. and Lo, S.L. 2017. Life-cycle environmental and cost impacts of reusing fly ash. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 123:255-260, doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2016.07.001.

Ignatavičius, G., Unsal, M.H., Busher, P., Wołkowicz, S., Satkūnas, J., Šulijienė, G. and Valskys, V. 2022. Geochemistry of mercury in soils and water sediments. AIMS Environmental Science 9(3):261-281, doi:10.3934/environsci.2022019.

Karamalidis, A.K., Psycharis, V., Nicolis, I., Pavlidou, E., Benazeth, S. and Voudrias, E.A. 2008. Characterization of stabilized/solidified refinery oily sludge and incinerated refinery sludge with cement using XRD, SEM and EXAFS. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A 43(10):1144-1156, doi:10.1080/10934520802171618.

Kim, K.H., Kabir, E. and Jahan, S.A. 2016. A review on the distribution of Hg in the environment and its human health impacts. Journal of Hazardous Materials 306:376-385, doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.11.031.

Kolawole, J.T., Babafemi, A.J., Fanijo, E., Paul, S.C. and Combrinck, R. 2021. State-of-the-art review on the use of sugarcane bagasse ash in cementitious materials. Cement and Concrete Composites 118:103975, doi:10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2021.103975.

Laker, M.C. and Nortje, G.P. 2020. Review of existing knowledge on subsurface soil compaction in South Africa. Advances in Agronomy 162:143-197, doi:10.1016/bs.agron.2020.02.003.

Liu, S., Wang, X., Guo, G. and Yan, Z. 2021. Status and environmental management of soil mercury pollution in China: A review. Journal of Environmental Management 277:111442, doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.111442.

Misra, V. and Pandey, S.D. 2005. Hazardous waste, impact on health and environment for development of better waste management strategies in future in India. Environment International 31(3):417-431, doi:10.1016/j.envint.2004.08.005.

Morsy, M.S., Alsayed, S.H. and Salloum, Y.A. 2012. Development of eco-friendly binder using metakaolin-fly ash-lime-anhydrous gypsum. Construction and Building Materials 35:772-777, doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.04.142.

Neuzil, C.E. 2019. Permeability of clays and shales. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 47:247-273, doi:10.1146/annurev-earth-053018-060437.

Nortjé, G.P. and Laker, M.C. 2021. Factors that determine the sorption of mineral elements in soils and their impact on soil and water pollution. Minerals 11(8):821, doi:10.3390/min11080821.

Ossai, I.C., Ahmed, A., Hassan, A. and Hamid, F.S. 2020. Remediation of soil and water contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbon: A review. Environmental Technology and Innovation 17:100526, doi:10.1016/j.eti.2019.100526.

Palar, H., Monintja, S., Turangan, A.E. and Sarajar, A.N. 2013. The effect of tras and lime mix in expansive clay on the bearing capacity value. Jurnal Sipil Statik 1(6):390-399 (in Indonesian).

Pandey, G. and Madhuri, S. 2014. Heavy metals causing toxicity in animals and fishes. Research Journal of Animal. Veterinary and Fishery Sciences 2(2):17-23.

Penn, C.J. and Camberato, J.J. 2019. A critical review on soil chemical processes that control how soil pH affects phosphorus availability to plants. Agriculture 9(6):120, doi:10.3390/agriculture9060120.

Qi, C. and Fourie, A. 2019. Cemented paste backfill for mineral tailings management: Review and future perspectives. Minerals Engineering 144:106025, doi:10.1016/j.mineng.2019.106025.

Rachman, R.M., Bahri, A S. and Trihadiningrum, Y. 2018. Stabilization/solidification of tailing on traditional gold mining in kulon progo using fly ash. Journal of Ecological Engineering 19(3):178-184, doi:10.12911/22998993/86145.

Rachman, R.M., Bahri, A.S. and Trihadiningrum, Y. 2018. Stabilization and solidification of tailings from a traditional gold mine using Portland cement. Environmental Engineering Research 23(2):189-194, doi:10.4491/eer.2017.104.

Rachman, R.M., Karisma, E.D. and Trihadiningrum, Y. 2017. Stabilization/solidification of mercury contaminated soil of traditional gold mining in Kulon Progo Yogyakarta, Indonesia using a mixture of Portland cement and tras soil. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 12(22):6380-6387.

Rachman, R.M., Ngii, E. and Sriyani, R. 2021. Effect of using portland cement and tras soil to stabilize and solidify mercury-contaminated tailings in small-scale gold mining. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 871(1):012026, doi:10.1088/1755-1315/871/1/012026.

Raj, D.S.S., Aparna, C., Rekha, P., Bindhu, V.H. and Anjaneyulu, Y. 2005. Stabilisation and solidification technologies for the remediation of contaminated soils and sediments: an overview. Land Contamination & Reclamation 13(1):23-48, doi:10.2462/09670513.645.

Regulation of the Government of the Republic of Indonesia Number no. 22. 2021. Concerning the Implementation of Environmental Protection and Management (in Indonesian).

Santhosh, K.G., Subhani, S.M. and Bahurudeen, A. 2022. Sustainable reuse of palm oil fuel ash in concrete, alkali-activated binders, soil stabilisation, bricks and adsorbent: A waste to wealth approach. Industrial Crops and Products 183:114954, doi:10.1016/ j.indcrop.2022.114954.

Shammas, N.K. 2017. Selection of remedial alternatives for soil contaminated with heavy metals. In: Handbook of Advanced Industrial and Hazardous Wastes Management (pp. 75-126). CRC Press, doi:10.1201/9781315117423-4.

Singh, J. and Kalamdhad, A.S. 2011. Effects of heavy metals on soil, plants, human health and aquatic life. International Journal of Research in Chemistry and Environment 1(2):15-21.

Trihadiningrum, Y., Latif, R.A. and Rachman, R.M. 2019. Speciation of mercury contaminant in public gold mine tailing and its stabilization using sulfur and sulfide. Journal of Ecological Engineering 20(4):29-34, doi:10.12911/22998993/102613.

Tschakert, P. and Singha, K. 2007. Contaminated identities: mercury and marginalization in Ghana’s artisanal mining sector. Geoforum 38(6):1304-1321, doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2007.05.002.

Yousuf, M., Mollah, A., Pargat, J.R. and Cocke, D.L. 1992. An infrared spectroscopic examination of cement‐based solidification/stabilization systems‐Portland types V and IP with zinc. Journal of Environmental Science & Health Part A. 27:1503-1519, doi:10.1080/ 10934529209375809.

Zhang, H., Yuan, X., Xiong, T., Wang, H. and Jiang, L. 2020. Bioremediation of co-contaminated soil with heavy metals and pesticides: Influence factors, mechanisms and evaluation methods. Chemical Engineering Journal 398:125657, doi:10.1016/j.cej.2020.125657.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Indexed By