Indexed By
SJR Rank

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Article Tools
Email this article (Login required)
Email the author (Login required)
About The Authors

Jorge Santiago Garate-Quispe
ORCID iD Universidad Nacional Amazónica de Madre de Dios
Peru

Rosa Ponce de Leon
Departamento de Ingeniería Forestal y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Nacional Amazónica de Madre de Dios
Peru

Departamento de Ingeniería Forestal y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Nacional Amazónica de Madre de Dios

Marx Herrera-Machaca
Vice-rectorate for research, Universidad Nacional Amazónica de Madre de Dios
Peru

Edgar Julian-Laime

Carlos Nieto-Ramos

User
Author Guidelines

Visitor Statistic

Growth and survivorship of Vetiveria zizanioides in degraded soil by gold-mining in the Peruvian Amazon

Jorge Santiago Garate-Quispe, Rosa Ponce de Leon, Marx Herrera-Machaca, Edgar Julian-Laime, Carlos Nieto-Ramos
  J. Degrade. Min. Land Manage. , pp. 3219-3225  
Viewed : 109 times

Abstract


In the Peruvian Amazon, large area of primary forest have been deforested by Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM). Vetiveria zizanioides (Poaceae) is considered an excellent plant for the ecological restoration of degraded lands. The present study aimed to analyze the growth and survivorship of V. zizanioides in degraded soils by gold-mining in the Peruvian Amazon (Madre de Dios). The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions, and it followed a randomized complete block design with four treatments (substrates). The substrates were sand (mining), sand+pebbles (mining), forest soil, and amended soil. We evaluated the survivorship, shoot, tiller, and biomass production of V. zizanioides for two months. Univariate analysis of variance was used to detect differences among treatments. Fifteen days after experiment establishment, V. zizanioides survivorship was significantly higher in ASGM substrate 2 (sand+pebbles) than in other substrates, following the order of ASGM substrate 1 (sand) > forest soil > amended soil. However, at the end of the experiment, we did not find a significant difference on survivorship in subsequent assessments, and the total biomass per plant was lower in mining substrates than in non-mining substrates. The total biomass was significantly higher in amended soil than in other substrates, with yields between 1.7 and 3.6 times more biomass in amended substrate than in mine substrates. The soil substrate type significantly affected the survivorship, number of shoots, and biomass of V. zizanioides. The research results can provide a reference for remediation of degraded soils by gold-mining in the Peruvian Amazon.


Keywords


biomass accumulation; Madre de Dios; mining; Vetiver grass

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alarcon, A., Canahuire-Robles, R., Guevara, F., Rodriguez-Achata, L., Gallegos, L. and Garate-Quispe, J. 2021. Dynamics of forest loss in the southeast of the Peruvian Amazon: a case study in Madre de Dios. Ecosistemas 30: 2175, 10.7818/ECOS.2175 (in Spanish).

Almeida, A., Ribeiro, C., Carvalho, F., Durao, A., Bugajski, P., Kurek, K., Pochwatka, P. and Jóźwiakowski, K. 2019. Phytoremediation potential of Vetiveria zizanioides and Oryza sativa to nitrate and organic substance removal in vertical flow constructed wetland systems. Ecological Engineering 138: 19-27, doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2019.06.020.

Álvarez-Berríos, N., L’Roe, J. and Naughton-Treves, L. 2021. Does formalizing artisanal gold mining mitigate environmental impacts? Deforestation evidence from the Peruvian Amazon. Environmental Research Letters 16: 064052, doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/abede9.

Amaral, C.S., Silva, E., Pereira, I.M., Amaral, W., da Silva, M.A. and Nardis, B.O. 2019. Vetiver growth with different fertilizations in quartzite mining tailings. Floresta e Ambiente 26: 1-9, doi: 10.1590/2179-8087.026316.

Brandt, R., Merkl, N., Schultze-Kraft, R., Infante, C. and Broll, G. 2006. Potential of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) for phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in Venezuela. International Journal of Phytoremediation 8: 273-284, doi: 10.1080/15226510600992808.

Caballero, J., Messinger, M., Román-Dañobeytia, F., Ascorra, C., Fernandez, L.E. and Miles Silman, M. 2018. Deforestation and forest degradation due to gold mining in the Peruvian Amazon: a 34-year perspective. Remote Sensing 10(12): 1903, doi: doi:10.3390/rs10121903.

Cherlet, M., Hutchinson, C., Reynolds, J., Hill, J., Sommer, S. and von Maltitz, G. 2018. World Atlas of Desertification, Mapping Land Degradation and Sustainable Land Management Opportunities. (Third Edit). Publication Office of the European Union. 250p ISBN: 978-92-79-75350-3,

Chiu, K.K., Ye, Z.H., and Wong, M.H. 2006. Growth of Vetiveria zizanioides and Phragmities australis on Pb/Zn and Cu mine tailings amended with manure compost and sewage sludge: A greenhouse study. Bioresource Technology 97: 158-170, doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2005.01.038.

Cortes-McPherson, D. 2020. Peru: curtailing smuggling, regionalizing trade. In: Global Gold Producing Touching Ground. Springer International Publishing.

Csillik, O. and Asner, G.P. 2020. Aboveground carbon emissions from gold mining in the Peruvian Amazon. Environmental Research Letters 15: 014006, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/ab639c.

Datta, R., Quispe, M.A.,and Sarkar, D. 2011. Greenhouse study on the phytoremediation potential of vetiver grass, Chrysopogon zizanioides L., in arsenic-contaminated soils. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 86: 124-128, doi:10.1007/s00128-010-0185-8.

Dudai, N., Putievsky, E., Chaimovitch, D. and Ben-Hur, M. 2006. Growth management of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) under Mediterranean conditions. Journal of Environmental Management 81: 63-71, doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2005.10.014.

Garate-Quispe, J.S., Canahuire-Robles, R., Surco-Huacachi, O. and Alarcón-Aguirre, G. 2021. Desarrollo estructural y composición florística arbórea en áreas afectadas por minería aurífera en la Amazonía peruana: a 20 años de su reforestación. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 92: 923437, doi:10.22201/ib.20078706e.2021.92.3437.

Hao, H., Wei, Y., Cao, D., Guo, Z. and Shi, Z. 2020. Vegetation restoration and fine roots promote soil infiltrability in heavy-textured soils. Soil and Tillage Research 198: 104542, doi:10.1016/j.still.2019.104542.

Iatan, E.L. 2021. Gold mining industry influence on the environment and possible phytoremediation applications. In Bauddh, K., Korstad, J. and Sharma, P. (eds), Phytorestoration of Abandoned Mining and Oil Drilling Sites. Elsevier, Oxford, G.B., pp 373-408. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-821200-4.00007-8

Issaka, S. and Ashraf, M.A. 2021. Phytorestoration of mine spoiled: “Evaluation of natural phytoremediation process occurring at ex‑tin mining catchment.” In Bauddh, K., Korstad, J. and Sharma, P. (eds), Phytorestoration of Abandoned Mining and Oil Drilling Sites. Elsevier, Oxford, G.B., pp 219-248. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-821200-4.00009-1

Milla-Moreno, E. and Guy, R.D. 2021. Growth response, uptake and mobilization of metals in native plant species on tailings at a Chilean copper mine. International Journal of Phytoremediation 23(5): 539-547, doi: 10.1080/15226514.2020.1838435.

Pandey, V.C. and Praveen, A. 2020. Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash - more than a promising crop in phytoremediation. In Pandey, V. and Singh, D. (eds), Phytoremediation Potential of Perennial Grasses. Elsevier, Oxford, G.B., pp 31-62. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-817732-7.00002-X

Patra, D.K., Acharya, S., Pradhan, C. and Patra, H.K. 2021. Poaceae plants as potential phytoremediators of heavy metals and eco-restoration in contaminated mining sites. Environmental Technology and Innovation 21: 101293, doi: 10.1016/j.eti.2020.101293.

Peña-Salamanca, E., Madera-Parra, C., Sánchez, J. and Medina-Vásquez, J. 2013. Bioprospección de plantas nativas para su uso en procesos de biorremediación: caso Helicona psittacorum (Heliconiacea). Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales 37: 469-481. doi:10.18257/raccefyn.29

R Core Team. 2020. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. http://www.R-project.org/. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.

Riley-Powell, A.R., Lee, G.O., Naik, N.S., Jensen, K.E., O’Neal, C., Salmón-Mulanovich, G., Hartinger, S.M., Bausch, D.G. and Paz-Soldan, V.A. 2018. The impact of road construction on subjective well-being in communities in Madre de Dios, Peru. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15(6): 1271, doi: 10.3390/ijerph15061271.

Román-Dañobeytia, F., Cabanillas, F., Lefebvre, D., Farfan, J., Alferez, J., Polo-Villanueva, F., Llacsahuanga, J., Vega, C.M., Velasquez, M., Corvera, R., Condori, E., Ascorra, C., Fernandez, L. E. and Silman, M.R. 2021. Survival and early growth of 51 tropical tree species in areas degraded by artisanal gold mining in the Peruvian Amazon. Ecological Engineering 159: 106097, doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2020.106097.

Rotkittikhun, P., Chaiyarat, R., Kruatrachue, M., Pokethitiyook, P. and Baker, A.J.M. 2007. Growth and lead accumulation by the grasses Vetiveria zizanioides and Thysanolaena maxima in lead-contaminated soil amended with pig manure and fertilizer: A glasshouse study. Chemosphere 66(1): 45-53, doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.05.038.

Sharma, P., Jha, A.B., Bauddh, K., Korstad, J. and Dubey, R.S. 2021. Efficient utilization of plant biomass after harvesting the phytoremediator plants. In Bauddh, K., Korstad, J. and Sharma, P. (eds), Phytorestoration of Abandoned Mining and Oil Drilling Sites. Elsevier, Oxford, G.B., pp 57-84. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-821200-4.00003-0

Srivastava, J., Kayastha, S., Jamil, S. and Srivastava, V. 2008. Environmental perspectives of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 30(4): 413-417, doi:10.1007/s11738-008-0137-7.

Swenson, J.J., Carter, C.E., Domec, J.C. and Delgado, C.I. 2011. Gold mining in the Peruvian Amazon: global prices, deforestation, and mercury imports. PLOS ONE 6: e18875,

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018875.

Torres, D., Cumana, A., Torrealba, O. and Posada, D. 2010. Use of vetiver for the fitoremediation of chromiun in residual sludges in a Tennery. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Agrícolas 1: 175-188.

Truong, P., and Thai-Danh, L. 2015. The Vetiver System for Improving Water Quality (Second Edi). The Vetiver Network International Cover.

Velásquez-Ramírez, M.G., Barrantes, J.A.G., Thomas, E., Gamarra, L. A., Pillaca, M., Tello, L.D. and Bazán, L.R. 2020. Heavy metals in alluvial gold mine spoils in the Peruvian Amazon. Catena 189: 104454, doi: 10.1016/j.catena.2020.104454.

Velásquez-Ramírez, M.G., Vega, C.M., Gomringer, R., Pillaca, M., Thomas, E., Stewart, P., Gamarra, L.A., Dañobeytia, F.R., Guerrero-Barrantes, J.A., Gushiken, M.C., Bardales, J.V., Silman, M., Fernandez, L., Ascorra, C. and Torres, D.. 2021. Mercury in soils impacted by alluvial gold mining in the Peruvian Amazon. Journal of Environmental Management 288: 112364, doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112364.

Wu, B., Peng, H., Sheng, M., Luo, H., Wang, X., Zhang, R., Xu, F. and Xu, H. 2021. Evaluation of phytoremediation potential of native dominant plants and spatial distribution of heavy metals in abandoned mining area in Southwest China. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 220: 112368, doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112368.

Xia, H.P. 2004. Ecological rehabilitation and phytoremediation with four grasses in oil shale mined land. Chemosphere 54: 345-353, doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(03)00763-X.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Indexed By